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Technical Paper

Heavy Tractor-Trailer Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper presents the development of a real-time vehicle dynamics model of the heavy tractor-trailer combination used in the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The model includes multi-body dynamics of the tractor and trailer chassis, suspension, and steering mechanisms. The rigid body model is formulated using recursive multi-body dynamics code. This model is augmented with subsystem models that include tires, leaf springs, brakes, steering system, and aerodynamic drag. This paper also presents parameter measurement and estimations used to set up the model. Also included are models for brake fade, steering torque resistance, and defective tires.
Technical Paper

American Automobile Manufacturers Association Heavy Truck Brake Tire Test

The objective of the American Automobile Manufacturers Association (AAMA) Heavy Truck Brake Tire Test was to evaluate how different tires might effect a vehicle's performance when tested per the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. (SAE) J1626 “Braking, Stability, and Control Performance Test Procedures for Air-Brake-Equipped Truck Tractors.” During the summer of 1991, the Motor Vehicle Manufacturer's Association (MVMA), now known as the American Automobile Manufacturer's Association (AAMA), contracted Transportation Research Center Inc. (TRC) to perform a Heavy Truck Round Robin Brake Test to evaluate the practicality and repeatability of the ABS test procedure developed for the Motor Vehicle Safety Research Advisory Committee of NHTSA (SAE Paper 922484). One of the conclusions derived from that test program was that tires seem to play a more significant role than expected in vehicle braking performance.
Technical Paper

Validation and Enhancement of a Heavy Truck Simulation Model with an Electronic Stability Control Model

Validation was performed on an existing heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model with roll stability control (RSC). The first stage in this validation was to compare the response of the simulated tractor to that of the experimental tractor. By looking at the steady-state gains of the tractor, adjustments were made to the model to more closely match the experimental results. These adjustments included suspension and steering compliances, as well as auxiliary roll moment modifications. Once the validation of the truck tractor was completed for the current configuration, the existing 53-foot box trailer model was added to the vehicle model. The next stage in experimental validation for the current tractor-trailer model was to incorporate suspension compliances and modify the auxiliary roll stiffness to more closely model the experimental response of the vehicle. The final validation stage was to implement some minor modifications to the existing RSC model.
Technical Paper

Simulation Results from a Model of a Tractor Trailer Vehicle Equipped with Roll Stability Control

In 2007, a software model of a Roll Stability Control (RSC) system was developed based on test data for a Volvo tractor at NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC). This model was designed to simulate the RSC performance of a commercially available Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system. The RSC model was developed in Simulink and integrated with the available braking model (TruckSim) for the truck. The Simulink models were run in parallel with the vehicle dynamics model of a truck in TruckSim. The complete vehicle model including the RSC system model is used to simulate the behavior of the actual truck and determine the capability of the RSC system in preventing rollovers under different conditions. Several simulations were performed to study the behavior of the model developed and to compare its performance with that of an actual test vehicle equipped with RSC.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a 6×4 Tractor and Trailers for Use in Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing

According to NHTSA's 2011 Traffic Safety Facts [1], passenger vehicle occupant fatalities continued the strong decline that has been occurring recently. In 2011, there were 21,253 passenger vehicles fatalities compared to 22,273 in 2010, and that was a 4.6% decrease. However; large-truck occupant fatalities increased from 530 in 2010 to 635 in 2011, which is a 20% increase. This was a second consecutive year in which large truck fatalities have increased (9% increase from 2009 to 2010). There was also a 15% increase in large truck occupant injuries from 2010. Moreover, the fatal crashes involving large trucks increased by 1.9%, in contrast to other-vehicle-occupant fatalities that declined by 3.6% from 2010. The 2010 accident statistics NHTSA's report reveals that large trucks have a fatal accident involvement rate of 1.22 vehicles per 100 million vehicle miles traveled compared to 1.53 for light trucks and 1.18 for passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Scenario Regeneration using a Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation Platform to Study ABS and ESC Performance Benefits

This study was performed to showcase the possible applications of the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to test heavy truck crash avoidance safety systems. In this study, the HIL simulation environment was used to recreate a simulation of an actual accident scenario involving a single tractor semi-trailer combination. The scenario was then simulated with and without an antilock brake system (ABS) and electronic stability control (ESC) system to investigate the crash avoidance potential afforded by the tractor equipped with the safety systems. The crash scenario was interpreted as a path-following problem, and three possible driver intended paths were developed from the accident scene data.
Technical Paper

Comparison of ABS Configurations and Their Effects on Stopping Performance and Stability for a Class 8 Straight-Truck

Direct vehicle performance comparisons were made between a full 6s/6m and a simpler 4s/4m system, as applied to a 6x4 Class 8 straight truck having a walking-beam rear suspension design. The 4s/4m system was run in both intermediate-axle control and trailing axle-control configurations. The systems were compared with modern air-disc brakes on the vehicle The systems were compared at LLVW (unladen) and GVWR (fully loaded) for high speed stopping performance and stability on a high-μ surface and a wetted split-μ surface, as well as Brake-in-Curve stability on a wetted low-μ 500-ft radius turn. In this paper, stopping distances are statistically compared to quantify effects of the various ABS control strategies on dry and wet stopping efficiency. In addition, newer techniques of using wheel-slip histograms generated from in-stop data are used to compare more detailed system behavior and predict their effects on vehicle stability under braking.
Technical Paper

Braking of Commercial Vehicles Equipped with Air-Disc Brakes from High Speed - Effects on Stopping Distance

Due to increased speed limits at the state level, NHTSA has pursued additional testing of heavy trucks at higher test maneuver entry speeds. Test results from three vehicles, a Class 7 school bus, a Class 8 truck tractor and a Class 8 straight-truck are presented here. Results are discussed for full treadle straight-ahead stops from 60, 70 and 75 mph. Each vehicle was tested with two different brake configurations. As expected, higher entry speeds resulted in increased stopping distances. Causes for increased stopping distances are briefly discussed. Comparisons show that vehicles in the hybrid configuration (air-disc brakes on steer axle and S-cam brakes on drive axle(s)) had superior stopping performance to the vehicles equipped with traditional S-cam brakes. The vehicles in the hybrid configuration were less susceptible to increased stopping distances from higher entry speeds.
Journal Article

Hardware-in-the-Loop Pneumatic Braking System for Heavy Truck Testing of Advanced Electronic Safety Interventions

The rapid innovation underway with vehicle brake safety systems leads to extensive evaluation and testing by system developers and regulatory agencies. The ability to evaluate complex heavy truck braking systems is potentially more rapid and economical through hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation which employs the actual electronics and vehicle hardware. Though the initial HiL system development is time consuming and expensive, tests conducted on the completed system do not require track time, fuel, vehicle maintenance, or technician labor for driving or truck configuration changes. Truck and trailer configuration and loading as well as test scenarios can be rapidly adjusted within the vehicle dynamics simulation software to evaluate the performance of automated safety interventions (such as ESC) over a wide range of conditions.
Journal Article

Validation of Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing with a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models

The tractor trailer models discussed in this paper were for a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to test heavy truck electronic stability control (ESC) systems [1]. The accuracy of the simulation results relies on the fidelity and accuracy of the vehicle parameters used. However in this case where hardware components are part of the simulation, their accuracy also affects the proper working of the simulation and ESC unit. Hence both the software and hardware components have to be validated. The validation process discussed in this paper is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the validation of the TruckSim vehicle model, where experimental data is compared with simulation results from TruckSim. Once the vehicle models are validated, they are incorporated in the HIL simulation and the second section discusses the validation of the whole HIL system with ESC.
Journal Article

Integration of a Torsional Stiffness Model into an Existing Heavy Truck Vehicle Dynamics Model

Torsional stiffness properties were developed for both a 53-foot box trailer and a 28-foot flatbed control trailer based on experimental measurements. In order to study the effect of torsional stiffness on the dynamics of a heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model, static maneuvers were conducted comparing different torsional stiffness values to the original rigid vehicle model. Stiffness properties were first developed for a truck tractor model. It was found that the incorporation of a torsional stiffness model had only a minor effect on the overall tractor response for steady-state maneuvers up to 0.4 g lateral acceleration. The effect of torsional stiffness was also studied for the trailer portion of the existing model.