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Technical Paper

Head Protection Characteristics of Windshield During Pedestrian-Vehicle Accident

The windshield is one of the most critical vehicle components in terms of pedestrian safety; however, it has not been thoroughly and systematically investigated through combined experimental and theoretical analysis. Firstly, this paper carries out quasi-static experiments on Material Testing System (MTS) and dynamic experiments on Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) and new tests data are obtained. Results indicate that Polyvinyl butyral (PVB)-laminated glass behaves nonlinearly and rate-dependently under various strain rates, from 1x10-⁵s-₁~6x10₃ s-₁. Thus, a constitutive model covering all strain rates is proposed to describe the constitutive behavior of PVB-laminated glass and it fits well with the experimental data. Further, the constitutive relation is embedded into the 3D finite element model of windshield. With the definition of four governing factors and two evaluation indicators, the head protection characteristics of windshield are numerically studied.
Technical Paper

Neck Validation of Multibody Human Model under Frontal and Lateral Impacts using an Optimization Technique

Multibody human models are widely used to investigate responses of human during an automotive crash. This study aimed to validate a commercially available multibody human body model against response corridors from volunteer tests conducted by Naval BioDynamics Laboratory (NBDL). The neck model consisted of seven vertebral bodies, and two adjacent bodies were connected by three orthogonal linear springs and dampers and three orthogonal rotational springs and dampers. The stiffness and damping characteristics were scaled up or down to improve the biofidelity of the neck model against NBDL volunteer test data because those characteristics were encrypted due to confidentiality. First, sensitivity analysis was performed to find influential scaling factors among the entire set using a design of experiment.
Journal Article

Modeling and Experimental Studies of Crack Propagation in Laminated Glass Sheets

Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) laminated glass has been widely used in automotive industry as windshield material. Cracks on the PVB laminated glass contain large amount of impact information, which can contribute to accident reconstruction investigation. In this study, the impact-induced in-plane dynamic cracking of the PVB laminated glass is investigated. Firstly, a drop-weight combined with high-speed photography experiment device is set up to investigate the radial cracks propagation on the PVB laminated glass sheet. Both the morphology and the velocity time history curve of the radial cracks are recorded and analyzed to investigate the basic mechanism of the crack propagation process. Afterwards, a three-dimensional laminated plate finite element (FE) model is set up and dynamic cracking process is simulated based on the extended finite element method (XFEM).
Journal Article

Research on Temperature and Strain Rate Dependent Viscoelastic Response of Polyvinyl Butaral Film

The mechanical behavior of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film plays an important role in windshield crashworthiness and pedestrian protection and should be depth study. In this article, the uniaxial tension tests of PVB film at various strain rates (0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, 1 s-1) and temperatures (-10°C, 0°C, 10°C, 23°C, 40°C, 55°C, 70°C) are conducted to investigate its mechanical behavior. Then, temperature and strain rate dependent viscoelastic characteristics of PVB are systematically studied. The results show that PVB is a kind of temperature and strain rate sensitive thermal viscoelastic material. Temperature increase and strain rate decrease have the same influence on mechanical properties of PVB. Besides, the mechanical characteristics of PVB change non-linearly with temperature and strain rate. Finally, two thermal viscoelastic constitutive model (ZWT model and DSGZ model) are suggested to describe the tension behavior of PVB film at various strain rates and temperatures.
Journal Article

Experimental Studies on Viscoelasticity of Film Materials in Laminated Glass Sheets

Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film and SentryGlas® Plus (SGP) film have been widely used in automotive windshield and architecture curtain serving as protective interlayer materials. Viscoelasticity is the unique property of such film materials, which can contribute to improving impact resistance and energy absorbing characteristics of laminated glass. In this study, the uniaxial tensile creep and stress relaxation tests are conducted to investigate the viscoelasticity of PVB and SGP films used in laminated glass. Firstly, tensile creep and stress relaxation tests of PVB film (0.76mm) and SGP film with three thickness (0.89mm, 1.14mm and 1.52mm) are conducted using Instron universal testing machine to obtain creep and stress relaxation curves. Afterwards, both viscoelastic models (Burgers model, Maxwell-Weichert model) and empirical equations (Findley power law, Kohlrausch equation) are applied to simulate the creep and stress relaxation results.