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Technical Paper

An Innovative Design of In-Tire Energy Harvester for the Power Supply of Tire Sensors

With the development of intelligent vehicle and active vehicle safety systems, the demand of sensors is increasing, especially in-tire sensors. Tire parameters are essential for vehicle dynamic control, including tire pressure, tire temperature, slip angle, longitudinal force, etc.. The diversification and growth of in-tire sensors require adequate power supply. Traditionally, embedded batteries are used to power sensors in tire, however, they must be replaced periodically because of the limited energy storage. The power limitation of the batteries would reduce the real-time data transmission frequency and deteriorate the vehicle safety. Heightened interest focuses on generating power through energy harvesting systems in replace of the batteries. Current in-tire energy harvesting devices include piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrostatic and electromechanical mechanism, whose energy sources include tire deformations, vibrations and rotations.
Technical Paper

A Control Oriented Simplified Transient Torque Model of Turbocharged Diesel Engines

Due to the high cost of torque sensors, a calculation model of transient torque is required for real-time coordinating control purpose, especially in hybrid electric powertrains. This paper presents a feedforward calculation method based on mean value model of turbocharged non-EGR diesel engines. A fitting variable called fuel coefficient is defined in an affine relation between brake torque and fuel mass. The fitting of fuel coefficient is simplified to depend only on three variables (engine speed, boost pressure, injected fuel mass). And a two-layer feedforward neural network is utilized to fit the experimental data. The model is validated by load response test and ETC (European Transient Cycle) transient test. The RMSE (root mean square error) of the brake torque is less than 3%.
Technical Paper

Architecture of iBus: A Self-Driving Bus for Public Roads

Safety of buses is crucial because of the large proportion of the public transportation sector they constitute. To improve bus safety levels, especially to avoid driver error, which is a key factor in traffic accidents, we designed and implemented an intelligent bus called iBus. A robust system architecture is crucial to iBus. Thus, in this paper, a novel self-driving system architecture with improved robustness, such as to failure of hardware (including sensors and controllers), is proposed. Unlike other self-driving vehicles that operate either in manual driving mode or in self-driving mode, iBus offers a dual-control mode. More specifically, an online hot standby mechanism is incorporated to enhance the reliability of the control system, and a software monitor is implemented to ensure that all software modules function appropriately. The results of real-world road tests conducted to validate the feasibility of the overall system confirm that iBus is reliable and robust.
Journal Article

Energy Harvesting in Tire: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

Although energy harvesting systems are extensively used in different fields, studies on the application of energy harvesters embedded in tires for vehicle control are rare and mostly focus on solving power supply problems of tire pressure sensors. Sensors are traditionally powered by an embedded battery, which must be replaced periodically because of its limited energy storage. Heightened interest in vehicle safety is expected to drive increased design and manufacture of in-tire sensors, which in turn, translates to rising demand for power generation in tires. These challenges emphasize the need to investigate the substitution of batteries and in-tire energy harvesting systems. Current in-tire energy harvesting methods involve piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and electrostatic power generation, whose energy sources include tire vibrations, deformations, and rotations. Piezoelectric harvesters are generally compact but operate for short durations.
Technical Paper

Attitude Control of the Vehicle with Six In-Wheel Drive and Adaptive Hydro Pneumatic Suspensions

The ability of actively adjusting attitude provides a great advantage for those vehicles used in special environments such as off-road environment with extreme terrains and obstacles. It can improve vehicles’ stability and performance. This paper proposes an attitude control system for realizing the active attitude adjustment and vehicle motion control in the same time. The study is based on a vehicle with six wheel independent drive and six independent suspensions (6WIDIS), which is a kind of unmanned vehicle with six in-wheel drives and six independent hydro pneumatic suspensions. With the hydro- pneumatic suspensions, the vehicle’s attitude can be actively adjusted. This paper develops a centralized- distributed control strategy with attitude information obtained by multi-sensor fusion, which can coordinate the complex relationship among the six wheels and suspensions. The attitude control system consists of three parts.
Technical Paper

A Topological Map-based Path Coordination Strategy for Autonomous Parking

This paper proposed a path coordination strategy for autonomous parking based on independently designed parking lot topological map. The strategy merges two types of paths at the three stages of path planning, to determinate mode switching timing between low-speed automated driving and automated parking. Firstly, based on the principle that parking spaces should be parallel or vertical to a corresponding path, a topological parking lot map is designed by using the point cloud data collected by LiDAR sensor. This map is consist of road node coordinates, adjacent matrix and parking space information. Secondly, the direction and lateral distance of the parking space to the last node of global path are used to decide parking type and direction at parking planning stage. Finally, the parking space node is used to connect global path and parking path at path coordination stage.