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Technical Paper

Occupant Injury Response Prediction Prior to Crash Based on Pre-Crash Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1471
Occupant restraint systems are developed based on some baseline experiments. While these experiments can only represent small part of various accident modes, the current procedure for utilizing the restraint systems may not provide the optimum protection in the majority of accident modes. This study presents an approach to predict occupant injury responses before the collision happens, so that the occupant restraint system, equipped with a motorized pretensioner, can be adjusted to the optimal parameters aiming at the imminent vehicle-to-vehicle frontal crash. The approach in this study takes advantage of the information from pre-crash systems, such as the time to collision, the relative velocity, the frontal overlap, the size of the vehicle in the front and so on. In this paper, the vehicle containing these pre-crash features will be referred to as ego vehicle. The information acquired and the basic crash test results can be integrated to predict a simplified crash pulse.
Technical Paper

An SVM-Based Method Combining AEB and Airbag Systems to Reduce Injury of Unbelted Occupants

2018-04-03
2018-01-1171
An autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system can detect emergency conditions using sensors (e.g., radar and camera) to automatically activate the braking actuator without driver input. However, during the hard braking phase, crash conditions for the restraint system can easily change (e.g., vehicle velocity and occupant position), causing an out-of-position (OOP) phenomenon, especially for unbelted occupants entering the airbag deployment range, which may lead to more severe injuries than in a normal position. A critical step in reducing the injury of unbelted occupants would be to design an AEB system while considering the effect of deployed airbags on the occupants. Thus far, few studies have paid attention to the compatibility between AEB and airbag systems for unbelted occupants. This study aims to provide a method that combines AEB and airbag systems to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities for unbelted occupants.
Technical Paper

Using Shoulder Bolster and Knee Bolster to Achieve Protection Effect Comparable to Seatbelt and Airbag

2018-04-03
2018-01-1170
Seatbelt and airbags provide effective occupant restraint, but are also potential to induce intrusive deformation and submarining injuries in motor vehicle crashes. To address these issues, this study puts forward a new restraint concept that applies restraint loads on shoulders and knees/femurs, i.e., the sturdiest regions of human body, via a combined use of shoulder bolster and knee bolster based on biomechanical computational analysis. The load characteristics of the two bolsters were optimized to obtain protection effectiveness superior to conventional use of seatbelt and airbag. Occupant kinematics and kinetics were taken into account, including the excursions of head, shoulders and knees, the accelerations of head and chest, and the compressions of thorax on several locations on the ribcage. The injury risk of rib fractures was monitored based on the strain levels of ribcage.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Causes of Rear-end Conflicts Using Naturalistic Driving Data Collected by Video Drive Recorders

2008-04-14
2008-01-0522
Studying traffic accidents by using naturalistic driving data has become increasingly appealing for its potential benefits in improving road safety. This paper presents findings from a field test which has been conducted on 50 taxis in the urban areas of Beijing for 10 months using Video Drive Recorders (VDRs). The VDR used in this study could record the information of vehicle front view video, vehicle states, as well as driver operations immediately before and after an event. The drivers were given no specific instructions during the test, and the instrumentation for data collection was unobtrusive. Important safety-relevant parameters, such as vehicle speed, pre-event maneuver, time headway, time-to-collision, and driver reaction time, were calculated with precision. Based on these parameters, an analysis into features and causes of rear-end conflicts is performed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Legform Impactor with 4-DOF Knee-Joint for Pedestrian Safety Assessment in Omni-Direction Impacts

2011-04-12
2011-01-0085
The issue of car-to-pedestrian impact safety has received more and more attention. For leg protection, a legform impactor with 2 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) proposed by EEVC is required in current regulations for injury assessment, and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association Inc. (JAMA) and Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI) have developed a more biofidelic pedestrian legform since 2000. However, studies show that those existing legforms may not be able to cover some car-to-pedestrian impact situations. This paper documents the development of a new pedestrian legform with 4 DOFs at the knee-joint. It can better represent the kinematics characteristics of human knee-joint, especially under loading conditions in omni-direction impacts. The design challenge is to solve the packaging problem, including design of the knee-joint mechanisms and layout of all the sensors in a limited space of the legform.
Technical Paper

Head Protection Characteristics of Windshield During Pedestrian-Vehicle Accident

2011-04-12
2011-01-0082
The windshield is one of the most critical vehicle components in terms of pedestrian safety; however, it has not been thoroughly and systematically investigated through combined experimental and theoretical analysis. Firstly, this paper carries out quasi-static experiments on Material Testing System (MTS) and dynamic experiments on Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) and new tests data are obtained. Results indicate that Polyvinyl butyral (PVB)-laminated glass behaves nonlinearly and rate-dependently under various strain rates, from 1x10-⁵s-₁~6x10₃ s-₁. Thus, a constitutive model covering all strain rates is proposed to describe the constitutive behavior of PVB-laminated glass and it fits well with the experimental data. Further, the constitutive relation is embedded into the 3D finite element model of windshield. With the definition of four governing factors and two evaluation indicators, the head protection characteristics of windshield are numerically studied.
Technical Paper

Influence of Mass Distribution of Battery and Occupant on Crash Response of Small Lightweight Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0575
Small lightweight electric vehicle (SLEV) is an approach for compensating low energy density of the current battery. However, small lightweight vehicle presents technical challenges to crash safety design. One issue is that mass of battery pack and occupants is a significant portion of vehicle's total weight, and therefore, the mass distribution has great influence on crash response. This paper presents a parametric analysis using finite element modeling. We first build LS-DYNA model of a two-seater SLEV with curb weight of 600 kg. The model has no complex components and can provide reasonable crash pulses under full frontal rigid barrier crash loading and offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash loading. For given mass of battery pack and one occupant (the driver), different battery layouts, representing different combinations of center of gravity and moment of inertia of the whole vehicle, are analyzed for their influences on the crash responses under the two frontal crash loadings.
Technical Paper

Preliminary study of uniform restraint concept for protection of rear-seat occupant under mid and high crash severities

2016-04-05
2016-01-1528
As the restraint technologies for front-seat occupant protection advance, such as seatbelt pre-tensioner, seatbelt load limiter and airbag, relative effectiveness of rear-seat occupant protection decreases, especially for the elderly. Some occupant protection systems for front-seat have been proved to be effective for rear-seat occupant protection as well, but they also have some drawbacks. Seatbelt could generate unwanted local penetrations to the chest and abdomen. And for rear-seat occupants, it might be difficult to install airbag and set deployment time. For crash protection, it is desirable that the restraint loads are spread to the sturdy parts of human body such as head, shoulders, rib cage, pelvis and femurs, as uniformly as possible. This paper explores a uniform restraint concept aiming at providing protection in wide range of impact severity for rear-seat occupants.
Technical Paper

Neck Validation of Multibody Human Model under Frontal and Lateral Impacts using an Optimization Technique

2015-04-14
2015-01-1469
Multibody human models are widely used to investigate responses of human during an automotive crash. This study aimed to validate a commercially available multibody human body model against response corridors from volunteer tests conducted by Naval BioDynamics Laboratory (NBDL). The neck model consisted of seven vertebral bodies, and two adjacent bodies were connected by three orthogonal linear springs and dampers and three orthogonal rotational springs and dampers. The stiffness and damping characteristics were scaled up or down to improve the biofidelity of the neck model against NBDL volunteer test data because those characteristics were encrypted due to confidentiality. First, sensitivity analysis was performed to find influential scaling factors among the entire set using a design of experiment.
Technical Paper

Effects of Sinusoidal Whole Body Vibration Frequency on Drivers' Muscle Responses

2015-04-14
2015-01-1396
Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to contribute to the onset of low back pain. However, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. Little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz at 0.4 g of acceleration. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations. Muscle activity was measured using electromyography (EMG).
Technical Paper

Autonomous Emergency Braking Control Based on Hierarchical Strategy Using Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2017-09-23
2017-01-1964
Highway traffic safety has been the most serious problem in current society, statistics show that about 70% to 90% of accidents are caused by driver operational errors. The autonomous emergency braking (AEB) is one of important vehicle intelligent safety technologies to avoid or mitigate collision. The AEB system applies the vehicle brakes when a collision is eminent in spite of any reaction by the driver. In some technologies, the system forewarns the driver with an acoustic signal when a collision is still avoidable, but subsequently applies the brakes automatically if the driver fails to respond. This paper presents the development and implementation of a rear-end collision avoidance system based on hierarchical control framework which consists of threat assessment layer, wheel slip ratio control layer and integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (IEHB) actuator control layer.
Journal Article

Modeling and Experimental Studies of Crack Propagation in Laminated Glass Sheets

2014-04-01
2014-01-0801
Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) laminated glass has been widely used in automotive industry as windshield material. Cracks on the PVB laminated glass contain large amount of impact information, which can contribute to accident reconstruction investigation. In this study, the impact-induced in-plane dynamic cracking of the PVB laminated glass is investigated. Firstly, a drop-weight combined with high-speed photography experiment device is set up to investigate the radial cracks propagation on the PVB laminated glass sheet. Both the morphology and the velocity time history curve of the radial cracks are recorded and analyzed to investigate the basic mechanism of the crack propagation process. Afterwards, a three-dimensional laminated plate finite element (FE) model is set up and dynamic cracking process is simulated based on the extended finite element method (XFEM).
Journal Article

Research on Temperature and Strain Rate Dependent Viscoelastic Response of Polyvinyl Butaral Film

2016-04-05
2016-01-0519
The mechanical behavior of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film plays an important role in windshield crashworthiness and pedestrian protection and should be depth study. In this article, the uniaxial tension tests of PVB film at various strain rates (0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, 1 s-1) and temperatures (-10°C, 0°C, 10°C, 23°C, 40°C, 55°C, 70°C) are conducted to investigate its mechanical behavior. Then, temperature and strain rate dependent viscoelastic characteristics of PVB are systematically studied. The results show that PVB is a kind of temperature and strain rate sensitive thermal viscoelastic material. Temperature increase and strain rate decrease have the same influence on mechanical properties of PVB. Besides, the mechanical characteristics of PVB change non-linearly with temperature and strain rate. Finally, two thermal viscoelastic constitutive model (ZWT model and DSGZ model) are suggested to describe the tension behavior of PVB film at various strain rates and temperatures.
Journal Article

Influence of Pre-impact Pedestrian Posture on Lower Extremity Kinematics in Vehicle Collisions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1507
Lower extremities are the most frequently injured body regions in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions and such injuries usually lead to long-term loss of health or permanent disability. However, influence of pre-impact posture on the resultant impact response has not been understood well. This study aims to investigate the effects of preimpact pedestrian posture on the loading and the kinematics of the lower extremity when struck laterally by vehicle. THUMS pedestrian model was modified to consider both standing and mid-stance walking postures. Impact simulations were conducted under three severities, including 25, 33 and 40 kph impact for both postures. Global kinematics of pedestrian was studied. Rotation of the knee joint about the three axes was calculated and pelvic translational and rotational motions were analyzed.
Technical Paper

Active Steering and Anti-Roll Shared Control for Enhancing Roll Stability in Path Following of Autonomous Heavy Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0454
Rollover accident of heavy vehicle during cornering is a serious road safety problem worldwide. In the past decade, based on the active intervention into the heavy vehicle roll dynamics method, researches have proposed effective anti-roll control schemes to guarantee roll stability during cornering. Among those studies, however, roll stability control strategies are generally derived independent of front steering control inputs, the interactive control characteristic between steering and anti-roll system have not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, a novel roll stability control structure that considers the interaction between steering and anti-roll system, is presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

A Trajectory-Based Method for Scenario Analysis and Test Effort Reduction for Highly Automated Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0139
Unlike the test of passive safety of traditional vehicles, highly automated vehicles (HAV) need more capabilities to be tested. Besides, there are more parameter combinations for the scenarios that need to be tested for each capability, resulting in a high time-consuming and costs for the autonomous vehicle tests. This paper proposes a method for scenario analysis and test effort reduction. Firstly, the trajectories of the vehicle under test (VUT) in the scenario are analyzed, and the trajectories which lead to the test mission failure are obtained. Based on the above trajectories, the threshold that lead to the test mission failure, or a combination of thresholds are analyzed. The above thresholds or a combination of thresholds values are defined as Scenario Character Parameter (SCP). The process of the analysis of the SCPs are related to the abilities of the HAV, but does not depend on the specific algorithm of the HAV.
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