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Technical Paper

Development of a Legform Impactor with 4-DOF Knee-Joint for Pedestrian Safety Assessment in Omni-Direction Impacts

The issue of car-to-pedestrian impact safety has received more and more attention. For leg protection, a legform impactor with 2 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) proposed by EEVC is required in current regulations for injury assessment, and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association Inc. (JAMA) and Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI) have developed a more biofidelic pedestrian legform since 2000. However, studies show that those existing legforms may not be able to cover some car-to-pedestrian impact situations. This paper documents the development of a new pedestrian legform with 4 DOFs at the knee-joint. It can better represent the kinematics characteristics of human knee-joint, especially under loading conditions in omni-direction impacts. The design challenge is to solve the packaging problem, including design of the knee-joint mechanisms and layout of all the sensors in a limited space of the legform.
Technical Paper

Characterization Spray and Combustion Processes of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) in a Constant Volume Chamber

Recent research has shown that butanol, instead of ethanol, has the potential of introducing a more suitable blend in diesel engines. This is because butanol has properties similar to current transportation fuels in comparison to ethanol. However, the main downside is the high cost of the butanol production process. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product of the fermentation process of butanol production. By eliminating the separation and purification processes, using ABE directly in diesel blends has the potential of greatly decreasing the overall cost for fuel production. This could lead to a vast commercial use of ABE-diesel blends on the market. Much research has been done in the past five years concerning spray and combustion processes of both neat ABE and ABE-diesel mixtures. Additionally, different compositions of ABE mixtures had been characterized with a similar experimental approach.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of DMF and Gasoline Spray and Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine

2, 5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) has been receiving increasing interest as a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels, owing to the recent development of new production technology. However, the influence of DMF properties on the in-cylinder fuel spray and its evaporation, subsequent combustion processes as well as emission formation in current gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is still not well understood, due to the lack of comprehensive understanding of its physical and chemical characteristics. To better understand the spray characteristics of DMF and its application to the IC engine, the fuel sprays of DMF and gasoline were investigated by experimental and computational methods. The shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used for measuring spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of both fuels.
Technical Paper

Design of Robust Active Load-Dependent Vehicular Suspension Controller via Static Output Feedback

In this paper, we focus on the active vehicular suspension controller design. A quarter-vehicle suspension system is employed in the system analysis and synthesis. Due to the difficulty and cost in the measuring of all the states, we only choose two variables to construct the feedback loop, that is, the control law is a static-output-feedback (SOF) control. However, the sensor reduction would induce challenges in the controller design. One of the main challenges is the NP-hard problem in the corresponding SOF controller design. In order to deal with this challenge, we propose a two-stage design method in which a state-feedback controller is firstly designed and then the state-feedback controller is used to decouple the nonlinear conditions. To better compensate for the varying vehicle load, a robust load-dependent control strategy is adopted. The proposed design methodology is applied to a suspension control example.
Technical Paper

The engaging process model of sleeve and teeth ring with a precise, continuous and nonlinear damping impact model in mechanical transmissions

During the engaging process of sleeve and teeth ring in mechanical transmissions, their rotational speed and position differences cause multiple engaging ways and trajectories, and casual impacts between them will delay the engaging process and cause a long power off time for a gear shift. In order to reveal the engaging mechanism of the sleeve and the teeth ring, it is essential to build a high-fidelity model to cover all of their engaging ways and capture their speed changes for an impact. In this work, our contribution is that their impact process is modeled as a precise, continuous and nonlinear damping model, and then a hybrid automaton model is built to connect the system dynamics in different mechanical coupling relationships.
Journal Article

Identification of True Stress-Strain Curve of Thermoplastic Polymers under Biaxial Tension

This article is concerned with identification of true stress-strain curve under biaxial tension of thermoplastic polymers. A new type of biaxial tension attachment was embedded first in a universal material test machine, which is able to transform unidirectional loading of the test machine to biaxial loading on the specimen with constant velocity. Cruciform specimen geometry was optimized via FE modeling. Three methods of calculating true stress in biaxial tension tests were compared, based on incompressibility assumption, linear elastic theory and inverse engineering method, respectively. The inverse engineering method is more appropriate for thermoplastic polymers since it considers the practical volume change of the material during biaxial tension deformation. The strategy of data processing was established to obtain biaxial tension true stress-strain curves of different thermoplastic polymers.
Journal Article

The Fixed Points on the Nonlinear Dynamic Properties and the Parameters Identification Method for Hydraulic Engine Mount

Based on the third generation of hydraulic engine mounts (HEMs), which has three types of hydraulic mechanisms such as inertia track, decoupler and disturbing plate, the influences of the three different hydraulic mechanisms on the dynamic properties were studied experimentally. The working principles of the three hydraulic mechanisms and the relationship between the dynamic properties of the three generations of HEMs were revealed clearly, these experimental results will be helpful for HEM design selection. It was discovered experimentally that the frequency-dependent dynamic properties of HEM with inertia track or orifice have fixed points under different excitation displacement amplitudes. Based on the facts that the analytical results matched well with the experimental ones, a new parameter-identification-method for HEM is presented, which is clear in theory and is time- and cost-saving, the identified results were reliable.
Technical Paper

The Differential Braking Steering Control of Special Purpose Flat-Bed Electric Vehicle

Special purpose flat-bed vehicle is commonly utilized to move heavily items such as containers in warehouse, port and other freight handling scene, the hydraulic steering system have be gradually replaced by electric ones. However, the cost of electric steering system is high for commercial activities. Thus, for some corporates, the differential braking steering strategy becomes an ideal alternative. The purpose of this paper is to present a steering control method for flat-bed electric vehicle based on differential braking system. There are two main components of the control method, steering while moving forward and pivot steering, and each of them was composed by upper layer and executive layer. To evaluate the practicability of the control methods, a 7-DOF flat-bed vehicle model was established in Simulink.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Dissimilar Materials Joints

The presenting work tends to compare the dynamic effect of the self-piercing riveted (SPR) connection with mechanical clinched connection of the same material combination. The substrates used in this investigation are aluminum alloy AA5182-O and deep drawing steel DX51D+Z. The static, dynamic behaviors and the failure modes of the SPR and the clinching connections are characterized by lap-shear, cross-tensions and coach-peel tests. Influence of the strain-rate dependent mechanical behavior of the substrates on the joints is examined, which helps improve the prediction of energy absorption of the joints under impact loading. Considering the realistic baking process in painting shop, the deforming and hardening effects on the SPR and the clinching joints induced by baking are also studied. The specimens are heated to 180°C for 30 minutes in the oven and cooled down in the air.