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Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Neck Validation of Multibody Human Model under Frontal and Lateral Impacts using an Optimization Technique

2015-04-14
2015-01-1469
Multibody human models are widely used to investigate responses of human during an automotive crash. This study aimed to validate a commercially available multibody human body model against response corridors from volunteer tests conducted by Naval BioDynamics Laboratory (NBDL). The neck model consisted of seven vertebral bodies, and two adjacent bodies were connected by three orthogonal linear springs and dampers and three orthogonal rotational springs and dampers. The stiffness and damping characteristics were scaled up or down to improve the biofidelity of the neck model against NBDL volunteer test data because those characteristics were encrypted due to confidentiality. First, sensitivity analysis was performed to find influential scaling factors among the entire set using a design of experiment.
Technical Paper

A New Method to Accelerate Road Test Simulation on Multi-Axial Test Rig

2017-03-28
2017-01-0200
Road test simulation on test rig is widely used in the automobile industry to shorten the development circles. However, there is still room for further improving the time cost of current road simulation test. This paper described a new method considering both the damage error and the runtime of the test on a multi-axial test rig. First, the fatigue editing technique is applied to cut the small load in road data to reduce the runtime initially. The edited road load data could be reproduced on a multi-axial test rig successfully. Second, the rainflow matrices of strains on different proving ground roads are established and transformed into damage matrices based on the S-N curve and Miner rules using a reduction method. A standard simulation test for vehicle reliability procedure is established according to the proving ground schedule as a target to be accelerated.
Technical Paper

Energy Management and Design Optimization for a Power-Split, Heavy-Duty Truck

2017-10-08
2017-01-2450
Power-split configuration is highlighted as the most popular concept for full hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). However, the energy management and design of power-split heavy duty truck under Chinese driving conditions still need to be investigated. In this paper, the parametric design, a rule-based control strategy and an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) for the power-split heavy duty truck are presented. Besides, the influence of a penalty factor also discussed under ECMS algorithm. Meanwhile, two different methods to search the engine operation point have been proposed and the reason of different economy performance is presented by using energy flow chart. And the simulation results show both fuel consumption can satisfy the second phase fuel consumption standard and the third phase fuel consumption standard which will be implemented in 2020, under C-WTVC (Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle).
Technical Paper

Energetic Macroscopic Representation Based Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Taking into Account Demand Power Optimization

2017-10-08
2017-01-2208
To further explore the potential of fuel economy for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a methodology of demand power optimization is proposed. The fuel consumption depends not only on the EMS, but also on the way to operate vehicle. A control strategy to adjust driver’s demand before power splitting is necessary. To get accurate and reliable control strategy, two aspects are the most important. First, a rigorous and organized modeling approach is a base to describe complicated powertrain system of HEV. The energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is a graphical synthetic description of electromechanical conversion system based on energy flow. A powertrain architecture of HEV is described explicitly via the EMR. Second, the effectiveness of EMS and the reasonability of driving operations are vital.
Technical Paper

Injection Rate Control in Electronic in-line Pump-Valve-Pipe-Injector Diesel Injection System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0201
Injection rate control is considered as an effective way to optimize diesel combustion process, decrease emission and improve fuel economy. There are many injection rate shaping devices, but most of them still suffer from structure complexity and parameter sensitivity which limit their effectiveness and practicality. A new initial injection rate control method in solenoid-controlled diesel injection systems is introduced in this paper. The basic idea of this method is to maintain a small spill passage between plunger chamber and inlet port during initial injection period. The initial injection rate can be regulated by changing the closing timing of the solenoid-controlled spill valve. This method has the advantages of simple construction, flexible adjustment and stable performance. Computer aided analysis and design based on a simulation program of the system is conducted to compare and select the sizes of the small spill passage according to their effect on injection characteristics.
Technical Paper

Study on Modeling Method for Common Rail Diesel Engine Calibration and Optimization

2004-03-08
2004-01-0426
The large amount of controllable fuel injection parameters of Diesel engine equipped with high pressure common-rail fuel injection system makes the control of combustion more flexible, and also makes the workload of calibration and optimization much heavier. For higher efficiency, model-based approaches are presented and researched. This contribution presents a new method for modeling which is constituted by Neural Network and Adaptive Network-based Fussy Inference System (ANFIS). The experiment is carried out on a 6-cylinder common rail diesel engine. The analysis and experiment show that effective modeling can be achieved using this method.
Journal Article

On the Coupling Stiffness in Closed-Loop Coupling Disc Brake Model through Optimization

2015-04-14
2015-01-0668
The study and prevention of unstable vibration is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Improving predicting accuracy of braking squeal model is of great concern. Closed-loop coupling disc brake model is widely used in complex eigenvalue analysis and further analysis. The coupling stiffness of disc rotor and pads is one of the most important parameters in the model. But in most studies the stiffness is calculated by simple static force-deformation simulation. In this paper, a closed-loop coupling disc brake model is built. Initial values of coupling stiffness are estimated from static calculation. Experiment modal analysis of stationary disc brake system with brake line pressure and brake torques applied is conducted. Then an optimization process is initiated to minimize the differences between modal frequencies predicted by the stationary model and those from test. Thus model parameters more close to reality are found.
Journal Article

Cyber-Physical System Based Optimization Framework for Intelligent Powertrain Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0426
The interactions between automatic controls, physics, and driver is an important step towards highly automated driving. This study investigates the dynamical interactions between human-selected driving modes, vehicle controller and physical plant parameters, to determine how to optimally adapt powertrain control to different human-like driving requirements. A cyber-physical system (CPS) based framework is proposed for co-design optimization of the physical plant parameters and controller variables for an electric powertrain, in view of vehicle’s dynamic performance, ride comfort, and energy efficiency under different driving modes. System structure, performance requirements and constraints, optimization goals and methodology are investigated. Intelligent powertrain control algorithms are synthesized for three driving modes, namely sport, eco, and normal modes, with appropriate protocol selections. The performance exploration methodology is presented.
Technical Paper

The Review of Present and Future Energy Structure in China

2019-04-02
2019-01-0612
Both the economy and energy demand increase rapidly in China. The government is facing severe problems from energy security, carbon emissions and environmental issues. The past trends and future plans of energy will have great influence on the transportation, construction and industry development. This paper summarizes the present and future energy structure in China. Conventional fossil energy, nuclear energy and renewable energy are all included. Electricity will account for more proportion in total energy consumption in the future, and the structure of electricity will be cleaner. That will promote the development of electric vehicles and the transformation of China’s automotive industry. The optimization of energy structure will accelerate the low-carbon development in China. China’s energy development will enter a new stage from the expansion of total quantity to the upgrading of quality and efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Topological Map-based Path Coordination Strategy for Autonomous Parking

2019-04-02
2019-01-0691
This paper proposed a path coordination strategy for autonomous parking based on independently designed parking lot topological map. The strategy merges two types of paths at the three stages of path planning, to determinate mode switching timing between low-speed automated driving and automated parking. Firstly, based on the principle that parking spaces should be parallel or vertical to a corresponding path, a topological parking lot map is designed by using the point cloud data collected by LiDAR sensor. This map is consist of road node coordinates, adjacent matrix and parking space information. Secondly, the direction and lateral distance of the parking space to the last node of global path are used to decide parking type and direction at parking planning stage. Finally, the parking space node is used to connect global path and parking path at path coordination stage.
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