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Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles ?with and without? the technologies being evaluated.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Diesel Sulfur Content and Oxidation Catalysts on Transient Emissions at High Altitude from a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 Urban Bus Engine

Regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, and PM) and particulate SOF and sulfate fractions were determined for a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 urban bus engine at varying fuel sulfur levels, with and without catalytic converters. When tested on EPA certification fuel without an oxidation catalyst this engine does not appear to meet the 1994 emissions standards for heavy duty trucks, when operating at high altitude. An ultra-low (5 ppm) sulfur diesel base stock with 23% aromatics and 42.4 cetane number was used to examine the effect of fuel sulfur. Sulfur was adjusted above the 5 ppm level to 50, 100, 200, 315 and 500 ppm using tert-butyl disulfide. Current EPA regulations limit the sulfur content to 500 ppm for on highway fuel. A low Pt diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was tested with all fuels and a high Pt diesel oxidation catalyst was tested with the 5 and 50 ppm sulfur fuels.
Technical Paper

CRC Carbonyl Emissions Analysis Round Robin Program - Phase II

A second carbonyl round robin was conducted to enable participating laboratories doing routine analysis of carbonyls in vehicle exhaust emissions to assess their analytical capabilities. Three sets of solutions in acetonitrile containing varying number and amounts of standard DNPH-carbonyls were prepared. The parent carbonyls are known components of vehicle exhaust emissions. The samples were designed to challenge the capabilities of the participants to separate, identify and quantify all the components. The fourteen participating laboratories included automotive, contract, petroleum and regulatory organizations. All participants were able to separate and identify the C3 carbonyls; a few were not able to separate MEK from butyraldehyde and methacrolein from butyraldehyde; and many were not able to separate adequately the isomers of tolualdehyde. Inadequate separation and lack of appropriate standards resulted in a few misidentifications.
Technical Paper

Effects of Steady-State and Transient Operation on Exhaust Emissions from Nonroad and Highway Diesel Engines

Six heavy-duty diesel engines were tested for exhaust emissions on the ISO 8-mode nonroad steady-state duty cycle and the U.S. FTP highway transient test cycle. Two of these engines were baseline nonroad engines, two were Tier 1 nonroad engines, and two were highway engines. One of the Tier 1 nonroad engines and both of the highway engines were also tested on three transient cycles developed for nonroad engines. In addition, published data were collected from an additional twenty diesel engines that were tested on the 8-mode as well as at least one transient test cycle. Data showed that HC and PM emissions from diesel engines are very sensitive to transient operation while NOx emissions are much less so. Although one of the nonroad transient duty cycles showed lower PM than the steady-state duty cycles, all four of the other cycles showed much higher PM emissions than the steady-state cycle.
Technical Paper

IM240 Repair Verification: An Inexpensive Dynamometer Method

An inexpensive system was designed that would allow repair shops to verify the adequacy of repairs made to cars that had previously failed the new high-tech I/M test (IM240). Before and after repair tests on a limited number of vehicles were performed with both official IM240 and prototype repair grade (RG240) equipment systems. Analyses were performed to determine if the RG240 system concept is capable of determining if the repairs performed resulted in adequate emissions reductions to assure a passing IM240 retest. This study focuses on development of a prototype RG240 system consisting of a 100 SCFM CVS, a dynamometer with an eddy current power absorber and non-adjustable 2000 pound inertia flywheel, and a BAR 90 emissions analyzer with an additional nitric oxide analyzer.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Vehicle Exhaust Emissions of High Percentage Ethanol Blends

Six in-use vehicles were tested on a baseline gasoline and nine gasoline/ethanol blends to determine the effect of ethanol content in fuels on automotive exhaust emissions and fuel economy. The baseline gasoline was representative of average summer gasoline and served as the base from which the other fuels were blended. For the majority of the vehicles, total hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions as well as fuel economy decreased while NOx and acetaldehyde exhaust emissions increased as the ethanol content in the test fuel increased. Formaldehyde and carbon dioxide emissions were relatively unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The emission responses to the increased fuel oxygen levels were consistent with what would be expected from leaning-out the air/fuel ratio for a spark ignition engine. The results are shown graphically and a linear regression is performed utilizing the method of least squares to investigate statistically significant trends in the data.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Differing Filter Face Velocities on Particulate Mass Weight from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Due to continuing reductions in EPA's emission standard values for exhaust particulate emissions, industry production has shifted towards engines that produce very low amounts of particulate emissions. Thus, it is very possible that future engines will challenge the error range of the current instrumentation and procedures used to measure particulate emissions by being designed to produce extremely low levels of particulates. When low particulate emitting engines are sampled at low flowrates, the resulting filter loadings may violate the minimum filter loading recommendation in the Heavy Duty Federal Test Procedure [1]. Conversely, higher flow rates may be an inappropriate option for increasing filter loading due to the possibility of stripping volatile organic compounds from the particulate sample or otherwise artificially reducing the accumulated mass [2].
Technical Paper

Can Auto Technicians be Trained to Repair IM240 Emission Failures?

Eleven experienced commercial automotive technicians were recruited and trained to repair IM240 emission failures using a specially developed 30 hour course. The training course emphasized the use of an oscilloscope and a flow chart and wave form strategy to repair vehicles. Each technicians' performance was evaluated based on the repair of three or four in-use Arizona IM240 failures. Pre-training and post-training written tests were also administered. Results from this limited study were encouraging. After the technician training, HC and CO emission levels were reduced by 69% and NOx by 58%. More importantly, most of the technicians learned some new and useful diagnostic and equipment skills which they can immediately apply to their businesses. They also became more motivated to tackle the challenge of repairing vehicles to low transient emissions, and aware of the existence and use of new sophisticated diagnostic tools such as oscilloscopes.
Technical Paper

Alternative Techniques for Detecting Excessive Evaporative Emissions During I/M Tests

A modified constant volume sampling (CVS) system has been used to sample fugitive hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to determine whether such systems can help identify excess vehicular HC sources, such as leaking gas caps. The approach was successful in distinguishing tightly sealed, marginally leaking and grossly leaking caps. The technique may be useful in motor vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) facilities as a less intrusive alternative to techniques requiring pressurization of the fuel system.
Technical Paper

A Method for Comparing Transient NOx Emissions With Weighted Steady State Test Results

This paper describes a method used to compare the emissions from transient operation of an engine with the emissions from steady state operating modes of the engine. Weightings were assigned to each mode based on the transient cycle under evaluation. The method of assigning the weightings for each mode took into account several factors, including the distance between each second of the transient cycle's speed-and-torque point requests (in a speed vs. torque coordinate system) and the given mode. Two transient cycles were chosen. The transient cycles were taken from actual in-use data collected on nonroad engines during in-field operation. The steady state modes selected were based on both International Standard Organization (ISO) test modes, as well as, augmentation based on contour plots of the emissions from nonroad diesel engines. Twenty-four (24) steady-state modes were used. The transient cycle's speed-and-torque points are used to weight each steady state mode in the method.
Technical Paper

Detection of Catalyst Failure On-Vehicle Using the Dual Oxygen Sensor Method

On-vehicle proof-of-concept testing was conducted to evaluate the ability of the dual oxygen sensor catalyst evaluation method to identify serious losses in catalyst efficiency under actual vehicle operating conditions. The dual oxygen sensor method, which utilizes a comparison between an upstream oxygen sensor and an oxygen sensor placed downstream of the catalyst, was initially studied by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under steady-state operating conditions on an engine dynamometer and reported in Clemmens, et al. (1).* At the time that study was released, questions were raised as to whether the technological concepts developed on a test fixture could be transferred to a vehicle operating under normal transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Heat Storage Technology for Quick Engine Warm-Up

The Schatz Heat Battery stores excess heat energy from the engine cooling system during vehicle operation. This excess energy may be returned to the coolant upon the ensuing cold start, shortening the engine warm-up period and decreasing cold start related emissions of unburned fuel and carbon monoxide (CO). A Heat Battery was evaluated on a test vehicle to determine its effect on unburned fuel emissions, CO emissions, and fuel economy over the cold start portion (Bag 1) of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) at 24°C and -7°C ambient conditions. The Heat Battery was mounted in a vehicle fueled alternately with indolene clear (unleaded gasoline) and M85 high methanol blend fuels. Several Heat Battery/coolant flow configurations were evaluated to determine which would result in lowest cold start emissions.
Technical Paper

Identifying Excess Emitters with a Remote Sensing Device: A Preliminary Analysis

There has been considerable interest in applying remote measuring methods to sample in-use vehicle emissions, and to characterize fleet emission behavior. A Remote Sensing Device (RSD) was used to measure on-road carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from approximately 350 in-use vehicles that had undergone transient mass emission testing at a centralized I/M lane. On-road hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were also measured by the RSD on about 50 of these vehicles. Analysis of the data indicates that the RSD identified a comparable number of the high CO emitters as the two speed I/M test only when an RSD cutpoint much more stringent than current practice was used. Both RSD and I/M had significant errors of omission in identifying High CO Emitters based on the mass emission test. The test data were also used to study the ability of the RSD to characterize fleet CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Inspection/Maintenance in the 1990's

In the 1990's there will be a different mix of vehicle technologies than existed in the late 1970's when inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programs were first mandated. These changes include the widespread use of “closed-loop” computer control of engine parameters and fuel injection. Several studies by EPA are examined to determine the effect of these changes on existing I/M programs and to investigate new methods of vehicle inspection. The report discusses the effectiveness of a standard idle emission test versus other inspection methods, the role of proper preconditioning, self-diagnostic trouble code checks as a method to identify high emitting vehicles, uncertainties in predicting tampering and misfueling rates for the future, problems with decentralized programs, and the effectiveness of I/M repairs in reducing vehicle emissions as measured on the Federal Test Procedure.
Technical Paper

Catalysts for Methanol Vehicles

A Methanol catalyst test program has been conducted in two phases. The purpose of Phase I was to determine whether a base metal or lightly-loaded noble metal catalyst could reduce Methanol engine exhaust emissions with an efficiency comparable to conventional gasoline engine catalytic converters. The goal of Phase II was the reduction of aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions to very low levels by the use of noble metal catalysts with catalyst loadings higher than those in Phase I. Catalysts tested in Phase I were evaluated as three-way converters as well as under simulated oxidation catalyst conditions. Phase II catalysts were tested as three-way converters only. For Phase I, the most consistently efficient catalysts over the range of pollutants measured were platinum/rhodium configurations. None of the catalysts tested in Phase I were able to meet a NOx level of 1 gram per mile when operated in the oxidation mode.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Condition on FTP Emissions and In-Use Repairability

Twenty in-use vehicles that had failed the I/M test in the State of Michigan were inspected for engine mechanical condition as well as the state of the emission control system. Mass emission tests were conducted before and after repairs to the emission control system. The internal engine condition (i.e., high or low levels of cylinder leakage, or compression difference) showed little effect on the ability of the repaired vehicles to achieve moderate mass emission levels. Nine of the twenty vehicles were recruited after three years, and with the exception of tampering, the original emission control system repairs proved to be durable.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Passenger Car Equipped with a Direct Injection Neat Methanol Engine

The cyclic and steady-state vehicle emissions, fuel economy, performance, and cold start behavior of an automobile equipped with a direct injection methanol engine are compared with those of three other comparable vehicles. One of the comparable vehicles was powered by a gasoline-fueled engine, and the other two were Diesels. One of the Diesel-powered vehicles was naturally aspirated and the other was turbocharged. All evaluations were made using the same road load horsepower and equivalent test weight. All the evaluations were conducted at low mileage. The emissions of the methanol vehicle are compared to California low emission vehicle standards, and to the emissions of another methanol vehicle.
Technical Paper

Operating Characteristics of Zirconia Galvanic Cells (Lambda Sensors) in Automotive Closed-Loop Emission Control Systems

Simple tests were performed to investigate the operating characteristics of zirconia galvanic cells (lambda sensors) in automotive closed loop “three-way” emission control systems. Commercially available cells were exposed to typical gaseous components of exhaust gas mixtures. The voltages generated by the cells were at their maximum values when hydrogen, and, in some instances, carbon monoxide, was available for reaction with atmospheric oxygen that migrated through the cells' ceramic thimbles in ionic form. This dependence of galvanic activity on the availability of these particular reducing agents indicated that the cells were voltaic devices which operated as oxidation/reduction reaction cells, rather than simple oxygen concentration cells.
Technical Paper

Resistive Materials Applied to Quick Light-off Catalysts

The application of resistive materials as part of an exhaust emission control system is presented and discussed. The importance of cold start emissions is emphasized, and results are presented from experiments conducted with two different conductive materials. Most of the testing was conducted using methanol as the fuel, although some tests were run using gasoline-fueled vehicles.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ).