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Technical Paper

Source Management of Aircraft Electrical Power Systems with Hardware in the Loop Verification

2017-09-19
2017-01-2034
Future aircraft will demand a significant amount of electrical power to drive primary flight control surfaces. The electrical system architecture needed to source these flight critical loads will have to be resilient, autonomous, and fast. Designing and ensuring that a power system architecture can meet the load requirements and provide power to the flight critical buses at all times is fundamental. In this paper, formal methods and linear temporal logic are used to develop a contactor control strategy to meet the given specifications. The resulting strategy is able to manage multiple contactors during different types of generator failures. In order to verify the feasibility of the control strategy, a real-time simulation platform is developed to simulate the electrical power system. The platform has the capability to test an external controller through Hardware in the Loop (HIL).
Technical Paper

A Predictive Reference Governor for Synchronous Generator Regulation with a Pulsed Constant Power Load

2019-03-19
2019-01-1379
In this paper, first an analytical model of a synchronous generator with a pulsed constant power load (CPL) is developed and numerically compared with a detailed simulation model. The analytical model is shown to possess good predictive abilities, thus enabling its use for control purposes. Second, the generator has a proportionalintegral (PI) control inner-loop, whose task is to regulate the generator’s output voltage to a desired reference. A novel outer-loop predictive reference governor (PRG) is designed and tested via simulation. The PRG uses the analytical model to predict the output behavior of the generator over a short time window, and continuously modifies the reference given to the inner-loop in order to maintain stringent steady-state requirements, in spite of demanding power requirements at the CPL. Simulation results illustrate the significant performance advantages of using the PRG versus using the inner-loop PI controller alone.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Domain Component Based Modeling Toolset for Dynamic Integrated Power and Thermal System Modeling

2019-03-19
2019-01-1385
Design of modern aircraft relies heavily on modeling and simulation for reducing cost and improving performance. However, the complexity of aircraft architectures requires accurate modeling of dynamic components across many subsystems. Integrated power and thermal modeling necessitates dynamic simulations of liquid, air, and two-phase fluids within vapor cycle system components, air cycle machine and propulsion components, hydraulic components, and more while heat generation of many on-board electrical components must also be precisely calculated as well. Integration of these highly complex subsystems may result in simulations which are too computationally expensive for quickly modeling extensive variations of aircraft architecture, or will require simulations with reduced accuracy in order to provide computationally inexpensive models.
Technical Paper

Two Phase Thermal Energy Management System

2011-10-18
2011-01-2584
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), in cooperation with the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) and Fairchild Controls Corporation, is building a test facility to study the use of advanced vapor cycle systems (VCS) in an expanded role in aircraft thermal management systems (TMS). It is dedicated to the study and development of VCS control and operation in support of the Integrated Vehicle ENergy Technology (INVENT) initiative. The Two Phase Thermal Energy Management System (ToTEMS1) architecture has been shown through studies to offer potential weight, cost, volume and performance advantages over traditional thermal management approaches based on Air Cycle Systems (ACS). The ToTEMS rig will be used to develop and demonstrate a control system that manages the system capacity over both large amplitude and fast transient changes in the system loads.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine/Thermal Architecture Model Interface Development

2011-10-18
2011-01-2585
Integrated system-level analysis capability is critical to the design and optimization of aircraft thermal, power, propulsion, and vehicle systems. Thermal management challenges of modern aircraft include increased heat loads from components such as avionics and more-electric accessories. In addition, on-going turbine engine development efforts are leading to more fuel efficient engines which impact the traditionally-preferred heat sink - engine fuel flow. These conditions drive the need to develop new and innovative ways to manage thermal loads. Simulation provides researchers the ability to investigate alternative thermal architectures and perform system-level trade studies. Modeling the feedback between thermal and engine models ensures more accurate thermal boundary conditions for engine air and fuel heat sinks, as well as consideration of thermal architecture impacts on engine performance.
Technical Paper

Refrigerant Charge Management and Control for Next-Generation Aircraft Vapor Compression Systems

2013-09-17
2013-01-2241
Vapor compression systems (VCS) offer significant benefits as the backbone for next generation aircraft thermal management systems (TMS). For a comparable lift, VCS offer higher system efficiencies, improved load temperature control, and lower transport losses than conventional air cycle systems. However, broad proliferation of VCS for many aircraft applications has been limited primarily due to maintenance and reliability concerns. In an attempt to address these and other VCS system control issues, the Air Force Research Laboratory has established a Vapor Cycle System Research Facility (VCSRF) to explore the practical application of dynamic VCS control methods for next-generation, military aircraft TMS. The total refrigerant mass contained within the closed refrigeration system (refrigerant charge) is a critical parameter to VCS operational readiness. Too much or too little refrigerant can be detrimental to system performance.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Chemical Reactor-heat Exchanger based on Ammonium Carbamate

2012-10-22
2012-01-2190
In this work we present our recent effort in developing a novel heat exchanger based on endothermic chemical reaction (HEX reactor). The proposed HEX reactor is designed to provide additional heat sink capability for aircraft thermal management systems. Ammonium carbamate (AC) which has a decomposition enthalpy of 1.8 MJ/kg is suspended in propylene glycol and used as the heat exchanger working fluid. The decomposition temperature of AC is pressure dependent (60°C at 1 atmosphere; lower temperatures at lower pressures) and as the heat load on the HEX increases and the glycol temperature reaches AC decomposition temperature, AC decomposes and isothermally absorbs energy from the glycol. The reaction, and therefore the heat transfer rate, is controlled by regulating the pressure within the reactor side of the heat exchanger. The experiment is designed to demonstrate continuous replenishment of AC.
Technical Paper

In-situ Charge Determination for Vapor Cycle Systems in Aircraft

2012-10-22
2012-01-2187
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), in cooperation with the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) and Fairchild Controls Corporation, is operating an in-house advanced vapor compression refrigeration cycle system (VCS) test rig known as ToTEMS (Two-Phase Thermal Energy Management System). This test rig is dedicated to the study and development of VCS control and operation in support of the Energy Optimized Aircraft (EOA) initiative and the Integrated Vehicle ENergy Technology (INVENT) program. Previous papers on ToTEMS have discussed the hardware setup and some of the preliminary data collected from the system, as well as the first steps towards developing an optimum-seeking control scheme. A key goal of the ToTEMS program is to reduce the risk associated with operating VCS in the dynamic aircraft environment.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Based Vapor Cycle System Control and Active Charge Management for Dynamic Airborne Applications

2014-09-16
2014-01-2224
Numerous previous studies have highlighted the potential efficiency improvements which can be provided to aircraft thermal management systems by the incorporation of vapor cycle systems (VCS), either in place of, or in conjunction with, standard air cycle systems, for providing the needed thermal management for aircraft equipment and crews. This paper summarizes the results of a cycle-based VCS control architecture as tested using the Vapor Cycle System Research Facility (VCSRF) in the Aerospace Systems Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. VCSRF is a flexible, dynamic, multi-evaporator VCS which incorporates electronic expansion valves and a variable speed compressor allowing the flexibility to test both components and control schemes. The goal of this facility is to reduce the risk of incorporating VCS into the thermal management systems (TMS) of future advanced aircraft.
Technical Paper

Model Accuracy of Variable Fidelity Vapor Cycle System Simulations

2014-09-16
2014-01-2140
As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems advance, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for cost effective subsystem optimization. The success of the model-based design process is contingent on accurate prediction of the system response prior to hardware fabrication, but the level of fidelity necessary to achieve this objective is often called into question. Identifying the key benefits and limitations of model fidelity along with the key parameters that drive model accuracy will help improve the model-based design process enabling low cost, optimized solutions for current and future programs. In this effort, the accuracy and capability of a vapor cycle system (VCS) model were considered from a model fidelity and parameter accuracy standpoint. A range of model fidelity was evaluated in terms of accuracy, capability, simulation speed, and development time.
Technical Paper

Wireless Integrated Cockpit Information Display: Military Cockpit Applications

2007-09-17
2007-01-3905
The Wireless Integrated Cockpit Information Display (WICID) program developed a method for pilots to remotely control and display carry-on laptop based applications from the aircraft cockpit. Because flight safety concerns do not allow the pilot/copilot to use the standard keyboard and mouse devices during flight, the WICID program developed a multifunction display (MFD) that uses customized input devices such as bezel keys and a touch screen. The subsequent design of the WICID system became especially valuable in enhancing certain technologies critical to the military cockpit. This paper will address how the WICID system topology is uniquely suited to improve cockpit access to four main technology categories: Enhanced Situation Awareness (SA), Mission Planning/On-board Replanning, Enhanced Communication, and Navigation Aids.
Journal Article

A Direct Torque-Controlled Induction Machine Bidirectional Power Architecture for More Electric Aircraft

2009-11-10
2009-01-3219
The performance of a more-electric aircraft (MEA) power system electrical accumulator unit (EAU) architecture consisting of a 57000 rpm induction machine (IM) coupled to a controllable shaft load and controlled using direct torque control (DTC) is examined through transient modeling and simulation. The simplicity and extremely fast dynamic torque response of DTC make it an attractive choice for this application. Additionally, the key components required for this EAU system may already exist on certain MEA, therefore allowing the benefits of EAU technology in the power system without incurring a significant weight penalty. Simulation results indicate that this architecture is capable of quickly tracking system bus power steps from full regenerative events to peak load events while maintaining the IM's speed within 5% of its nominal value.
Technical Paper

Integrated Electrical System Model of a More Electric Aircraft Architecture

2008-11-11
2008-01-2899
A primary challenge in performing integrated system simulations is balancing system simulation speeds against the model fidelity of the individual components composing the system model. Traditionally, such integrated system models of the electrical systems on more electric aircraft (MEA) have required drastic simplifications, linearizations, and/or averaging of individual component models. Such reductions in fidelity can take significant effort from component engineers and often cause the integrated system simulation to neglect critical dynamic behaviors, making it difficult for system integrators to identify problems early in the design process. This paper utilizes recent advancements in co-simulation technology (DHS Links) to demonstrate how integrated system models can be created wherein individual component models do not require significant simplification to achieve reasonable integrated model simulation speeds.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Power Extraction Using Different Real-Time Platforms

2008-11-11
2008-01-2909
Aircraft power demands continue to increase with the increase in electrical subsystems. These subsystems directly affect the behavior of the power and propulsion systems and can no longer be neglected or assumed linear in system analyses. The complex models designed to integrate new capabilities have a high computational cost. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) is being used to investigate aircraft power systems by using a combination of hardware and simulations. This paper considers three different real-time simulators in the same HIL configuration. A representative electrical power system is removed from a turbine engine simulation and is replaced with the appropriate hardware attached to a 350 horsepower drive stand. Variables are passed between the hardware and the simulation in real-time to update model parameters and to synchronize the hardware with the model.
Technical Paper

Effects of Transient Power Extraction on an Integrated Hardware-in-the-Loop Aircraft/Propulsion/Power System

2008-11-11
2008-01-2926
As aircraft continue to increase their power and thermal demands, transient operation of the power and propulsion subsystems can no longer be neglected at the aircraft system level. The performance of the whole aircraft must be considered by examining the dynamic interactions between the power, propulsion, and airframe subsystems. Larger loading demands placed on the power and propulsion subsystems result in thrust, speed, and altitude transients that affect the aircraft performance and capability. This results in different operating and control parameters for the engine that can be properly captured only in an integrated system-level test. While it is possible to capture the dynamic interactions between these aircraft subsystems by using simulations alone, the complexity of the resulting system model has a high computational cost.
Technical Paper

GCU for Megawatt Class Directed Energy Weapons Pulse Generators

2006-11-07
2006-01-3054
Directed Energy weapon (DEW) systems are being developed for both ground and airborne applications. Typically, they consist of microwave or laser powered guns. Both the microwave application and the diode based laser applications require significant amount of power. This power ranges from several hundred kilowatts (kW) for microwave applications to Megawatts (MW) for laser applications. The laser application requires that the full power be available for short duration, typically 5 seconds, which could be repeated several times with short pauses in between. The control of a generator, which delivers Megawatt of the intermittent power greatly differs from the of normal steady state generator control. It poses significant challenges. Application of power (and for this matter its removal) is a transient phenomenon that takes time and its effects ripple through the whole system.
Technical Paper

Integrated Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of a Complex Turbine Engine and Power System

2006-11-07
2006-01-3035
The interdependency between propulsion, power, and thermal subsystems on military aircraft such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and F-22 Raptor continues to increase as advanced war-fighting capabilities including solid-state radars, electronic attack, electric actuation, and Directed Energy Weaponry (DEW) expand to meet Air Force needs. Novel analysis and testing methodologies are required to predict these interdependencies and address adverse interactions prior to costly hardware prototyping. As a result, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has established a dynamic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test-bed wherein transient simulations can be integrated through advanced real-time simulation with prototype hardware for integrated system studies and analysis. This paper details a test-bed configuration where a dynamic simulation of an aircraft turbine engine is utilized to control a dual-head electric drive stand.
Technical Paper

Average-Value Model of a High-Frequency Six-Phase Generation System

2004-11-02
2004-01-3181
In this paper, a parametric average-value modeling approach is applied to a high-frequency six-phase aircraft generation subsystem. This approach utilizes a detailed switch-level model of the system to numerically establish the averaged dynamic relationships between the ac inputs of the rectifier and the dc-link outputs. A comparison between the average-value and detailed models is presented, wherein, the average-value model is shown to accurately portray both the large-signal time-domain transients and the small-signal frequency-domain characteristics. Since the discontinuous switching events are not present in the average-value model, significant gains can be realized in the computational performance. For the study system, the developed average-value simulation executed more than two orders of magnitude faster than the detailed simulation.
Technical Paper

Distributed Simulation of an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Power System

2004-11-02
2004-01-3193
Future Air Force intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms, such as high-altitude Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAV), may drastically change the requirements of aircraft power systems. For example, there are potential interactions between large pulsed-power payloads and the turbine engine that could compromise the operation of the power system within certain flight envelopes. Until now, the development of large-scale, multi-disciplinary (propulsion, electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, thermal, etc.) simulations to investigate such interactions has been prohibitive due to the size of the system and the computational power required. Moreover, the subsystem simulations that are developed separately often are written in different commercial-off-the-shelf simulation programs.
Journal Article

A Specification Analysis Framework for Aircraft Systems

2016-09-20
2016-01-2023
Future aircraft systems are projected to have order of magnitude greater power and thermal demands, along with tighter constraints on the performance of the power and thermal management subsystems. This trend has led to the need for a fully integrated design process where power and thermal systems, and their interactions, are considered simultaneously. To support this new design paradigm, a general framework for codifying and checking specifications and requirements is presented. This framework is domain independent and can be used to translate requirement language into a structured definition that can be quickly queried and applied to simulation and measurement data. It is constructed by generalizing a previously developed power quality analysis framework. The application of this framework is demonstrated through the translation of thermal specifications for airborne electrical equipment, into the SPecification And Requirement Evaluation (SPARE) Tool.
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