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Technical Paper

Analysis of Current Spray Penetration Models and Proposal of a Phenomenological Cone Penetration Model

A phenomenological zero-dimensional spray penetration model was developed for diesel-type conditions for a constant volume chamber. The spray was modeled as a protruding cone which is well-mixed at its tip after passing through initial primary and secondary breakup zones. The resulting cone model is strictly dependent on injection parameters; density ratio, injection and chamber pressure, nozzle characteristics, and cone angle. The proposed model was compared with data from three different sources and performed well in most cases except for low density environments.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Single and Two-Stage Ignition in a Diesel Engine

This paper presents an experimental investigation conducted to determine the parameters that control the behavior of autoignition in a small-bore, single-cylinder, optically-accessible diesel engine. Depending on operating conditions, three types of autoignition are observed: a single ignition, a two-stage process where a low temperature heat release (LTHR) or cool flame precedes the main premixed combustion, and a two-stage process where the LTHR or cool flame is separated from the main heat release by an apparent negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Experiments were conducted using commercial grade low-sulfur diesel fuel with a common-rail injection system. An intensified CCD camera was used for ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy of chemiluminescent autoignition reactions under various operating conditions including fuel injection pressures, engine temperatures and equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Engine Testing System

A test stand was developed to evaluate an 11.5 cc, two-stroke, internal combustion engine in anticipation of future combustion system modifications. Detailed engine testing and analysis often requires complex, specialized, and expensive equipment, which can be problematic for research budgets. This problem is compounded by the fact that testing “micro” engines involves low flow rates, high rotational speeds, and compact dimensions which demand high-accuracy, high-speed, and compact measurement systems. On a limited budget, the task of developing a micro-engine testing system for advanced development appears quite challenging, but with careful component selection it can be accomplished. The anticipated engine investigation includes performance testing, fuel system calibration, and combustion analysis. To complete this testing, a custom test system was developed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure and Swirl Motion on Diesel Engine-out Emissions in Conventional and Advanced Combustion Regimes

The fuel injection pressure and the swirl motion have a great impact on combustion in small bore HSDI diesel engines running on the conventional or advanced combustion concepts. This paper examines the effects of injection pressure and the swirl motion on engine-out emissions over a wide range of EGR rates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder, 4-valve, direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The pressures and temperatures in the inlet and exhaust surge tanks were adjusted to simulate turbocharged engine conditions. The load and speed of the engine were typical to highway cruising operation of a light duty vehicle. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures, swirl ratios and injection timings. Engine-out emission measurements included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, smoke (in Bosch Smoke Units, BSU) and NOx.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions in an HSDI Diesel Engine under the LTC Regime

Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the formation of both regulated and unregulated emissions in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulphur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios. The regulated emissions were measured by the standard emission equipment. Unregulated emissions such as aldehydes and ketones were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography and hydrocarbon speciation by gas chromatography. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the sources of different emission species and their relationship with the combustion process under the different operating conditions. Special attention is given to the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime which is known to reduce both NOx and soot. However the HC, CO and unregulated emissions increased at a higher rate.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cetane Number with and without Additive on Cold Startability and White Smoke Emissions in a Diesel Engine

I The effect of Cetane Number (CN) of the fuel and the addition of cetane improvers on the cold starting and white smoke emissions of a diesel engine was investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle, air-cooled, direct-injection, stand-alone diesel engine in a cold room at ambient temperatures ranging from 25 °C to - 5 °C. Five fuels were used. The base fuel has a CN of 49.2. The CN of the base fuel was lowered to 38.7 and 30.8 by adding different amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons. Iso-octyl nitrate is added to the high aromatic fuels in order to increase their CN to 48.6 and 38.9 respectively. Comparisons are made between the five fuels to determine the effect of CN and the additive on cylinder peak pressure, heat release rate, cold start-ability, combustion instability, hydrocarbon emissions and solid and liquid particulates.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Characterization Studies in an HSDI Diesel Engine under Conventional and LTC Regime

Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the particulate matter (PM) characterization in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulfur diesel fuel. This includes their formation, size distribution and number density. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios, therefore covering both conventional and low temperature combustion regimes. A micro dilution tunnel was used to immediately dilute a small part of the exhaust gases by hot air. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the particulate size distribution and number density. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the root cause of PM characterization and their relationship with the combustion process under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Surface Contamination Simulation for a Military Ground Vehicle

Vehicle surface contamination can degrade not only soldier vision but also the effectiveness of camera and sensor systems mounted externally on the vehicle for autonomy and situational awareness. In order to control vehicle surface contamination, a better understanding of dust particle generation, transport and accumulation is necessary. The focus of the present work is simulation of vehicle surface contamination on the rear part of the vehicle due to the interaction of the combat vehicle track with the ground and dust in the surrounding ambient atmosphere. A notional tracked military vehicle is used for the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. A CFD methodology with one-way-coupled Lagrangian particle modeling is used. The simulation is initially run with only air flow to solve the air pressure, velocity, and turbulence quantities in a steady state condition.