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Technical Paper

Dynamic Validation of a Computer Simulation for Vehicle Crash

The present paper describes two crash tests designed to validate a computer simulation developed for predicting the large dynamic plastic response of vehicle structures under crash conditions. The test structures were idealized quarter scale models consisting of frame and rigid body elements. Both direct and oblique pole impacts are reported. Impact speed was 30 MPH. Predicted and experimental results are compared for the crush displacements, impact force at the pole barrier, and acceleration histories at two points on the “passenger compartment” mass. Good agreement is obtained for the symmetric test. Results for the oblique test are not as uniformly good, but quantitative agreement is still satisfactory. Comparison of dynamic variables are sensitive to both the filtering of the raw test data and the numerical integration procedure employed in the simulation.
Technical Paper

A Practical Time-Domain Approach to Controller Design and Calibration for Applications in Automotive Industry

This paper summarizes a systematic approach to control of nonlinear automotive systems exposed to fast transients. This approach is based on a combined application of hardware characterization, which inverts nonlinearities, and conventional Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative (PID) control. The approach renders the closed-loop system dynamics more transparent and simplifies the controller design and calibration for applications in automotive industry. The authors have found this approach effective in presenting and teaching PID controller design and calibration guidelines to automotive engineering audience, who at times may not have formal training in controls but need to understand the development and calibration process of simple controllers.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Hybrid Powertrain-In-the-Loop Integration for Analyzing Real-World Fuel Economy and Emissions Improvements

The paper describes the approach, addresses integration challenges and discusses capabilities of the Hybrid Powertrain-in-the-Loop (H-PIL) facility for the series/hydrostatic hydraulic hybrid system. We describe the simulation of the open-loop and closed-loop hydraulic hybrid systems in H-PIL and its use for concurrent engineering and development of advanced supervisory strategies. The configuration of the hydraulic-hybrid system and details of the hydraulic circuit developed for the H-PIL integration are presented. Next, software and hardware interfaces between the real components and virtual systems are developed, and special attention is given to linking component-level controllers and system-level supervisory control. The H-PIL setup allows imposing realistic dynamic loads on hydraulic pump/motors and accumulator based on vehicle driving schedule.
Technical Paper

Self-Learning Neural Controller for Hybrid Power Management Using Neuro-Dynamic Programming

A supervisory controller strategy for a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation of the two power sources onboard of a vehicle to maximize objectives like fuel economy. In the past, various control strategies have been developed using heuristics as well as optimal control theory. The Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) has been previously applied to determine implementable optimal control policies for discrete time dynamic systems whose states evolve according to given transition probabilities. However, the approach is constrained by the curse of dimensionality, i.e. an exponential increase in computational effort with increase in system state space, faced by dynamic programming based algorithms. This paper proposes a novel approach capable of overcoming the curse of dimensionality and solving policy optimization for a system with very large design state space.
Technical Paper

Development of Effective Bicycle Model for Wide Ranges of Vehicle Operations

This paper proposes an effective nonlinear bicycle model including longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motions of a vehicle. This bicycle model uses a simplified piece-wise linear tire model and tire force tuning algorithm to produce closely matching vehicle trajectory compared to real vehicle for wide vehicle operation ranges. A simplified piece-wise tire model that well represents nonlinear tire forces was developed. The key parameters of this model can be chosen from measured tire forces. For the effects of dynamic load transfer due to sharp vehicle maneuvers, a tire force tuning algorithm that dynamically adjusts tire forces of the bicycle model based on measured vehicle lateral acceleration is proposed. Responses of the proposed bicycle model have been compared with commercial vehicle dynamics model (CarSim) through simulation in various vehicle maneuvers (ramp steer, sine-with-dwell).
Journal Article

Safety Performance and Benefits of Heavy Truck Stability Control: Providing Insight into Compliance Evaluation

This paper contains an analysis of the potential safety benefits of electronic stability control (ESC) for single unit trucks and tractor semitrailers within the U.S. operating environment. It is based on research projects [1,2] which combined hardware-in-the-loop simulation and vehicle testing with the analysis of independent crash datasets using engineering and statistical techniques to estimate the probable safety benefits of stability control technologies for 5-axle tractor-semitrailer vehicles and single unit trucks. The characteristics of ESC-relevant crashes involving these two vehicle classes were found to be very different as were the control strategies needed for crash avoidance. Rollover was the dominant ESC relevant crash type for tractor semitrailers while loss of control was the dominant ESC relevant crash for straight trucks.