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Technical Paper

Sources and Tradeoffs for Transient NO and UHC Emissions with Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

High bandwidth transient data from a multi-cylinder diesel engine operating in a low temperature combustion regime was analyzed to identify and characterize the transient response behaviors primarily responsible for transient emissions of NO and UHC. Numerous different speed and load transients as well as different combustion modes and control strategies were studied to determine how these parameters affect transient performance. Limitations in the transient response of the air system were found to be the largest contributor to transient emissions, although the mechanism by which these limitations affect performance can vary greatly depending on conditions. Analysis of the data shows that transient emissions for low temperature combustion strategies are highly dependent on cycle-to-cycle changes in intake charge conditions. No fundamental difference was observed between the transient processes controlling speed and load changes.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Cetane Number, Volatility, and Total Aromatic Content on Highly-Dilute Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

The objective of this study is to increase fundamental understanding of the effects of fuel composition and properties on low temperature combustion (LTC) and to identify major properties that could enable engine performance and emission improvements, especially under high load conditions. A series of experiments and computational simulations were conducted under LTC conditions using 67% EGR with 9.5% inlet O₂ concentration on a single-cylinder version of the General Motors Corporation 1.9L direct injection diesel engine. This research investigated the effects of Cetane number (CN), volatility and total aromatic content of diesel fuels on LTC operation. The values of CN, volatility, and total aromatic content studied were selected in a DOE (Design of Experiments) fashion with each variable having a base value as well as a lower and higher level. Timing sweeps were performed for all fuels at a lower load condition of 5.5 bar net IMEP at 2000 rpm using a single-pulse injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Assessment of Inlet Swirl Effects on a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine

The light-medium load operating regime (4-8 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies (e.g. HCCI, PPC) in light-duty, high speed engines. In this operating regime, lean global equivalence ratios (Φ<0.4) present challenges with respect to autoignition of gasoline-like fuels. Considering this intake temperature sensitivity, the objective of this work was to investigate, both experimentally and computationally, gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion operating sensitivity to inlet swirl ratio (Rs) variations when using a single fuel (87-octane gasoline) in a 0.475-liter single-cylinder engine based on a production GM 1.9-liter high speed diesel engine. For the first part of this investigation, an experimental matrix was developed to determine how changing inlet swirl affected GCI operation at various fixed load and engine speed operating conditions (4 and 8 bar net IMEP; 1300 and 2000 RPM).
Journal Article

Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime

An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline (termed GDICI for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition) in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. As an aid to plan engine experiments at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min), exploration of operating conditions was first performed numerically employing a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. Operation ranges of a light-duty diesel engine operating with GDICI combustion with constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions were identified as functions of injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation rate and the fuel split ratio of double-pulse injections.