Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Probability-Based Methods for Fatigue Analysis

1992-02-01
920661
Modern fatigue analysis techniques, that can provide reliable estimates of the service performance of components and structures, are finding increasing use in vehicle development programs. A major objective of such efforts is the prediction of the field performance of a fleet of vehicles as influenced by the host of design, manufacturing, and performance variables. An approach to this complex problem, based on the incorporation of probability theory in established life prediction methods, is presented. In this way, quantitative estimates of the lifetime distribution of a population are obtained based on anticipated, or specified, variations in component geometry, material processing sequences, and service loading. The application of this approach is demonstrated through a case study of an automotive transmission component.
Technical Paper

Design of an All-Revolute, Linkage-Type, Constant-Velocity Coupling

1995-09-01
952133
This paper describes a design methodology for a three degree-of-freedom, linkage-based constant-velocity coupling. This coupling resembles the Clemens coupling patented in 1872 and has evolved from the authors' previous research in parallel mechanisms. This coupling contains only revolute joints and is therefore likely to be more durable and less prone to manufacturing errors than conventional higher-pair couplings. The kinematic configuration, based on the symmetric double octahedral Variable Geometry Truss mechanism (figure 2), has many inherent traits that make it ideal for application to industrial uses. Its parallel design of simple links and revolute joints provide it with high strength, rigidity, and light-weight characteristics. It has a link-joint construction that allows its geometry to be varied for specific applications, such as producing high angular deflection between the input and output shafts.
Technical Paper

Proposal for Improving the Performance of Longitudinal Acceleration of a Land Vehicle

2017-11-07
2017-36-0381
The present study introduces a proposal to improve the longitudinal performance of a land vehicle through the adoption of an unusual traction control system. The system is capable of improving the transfer of engine power to the ground and reduces the complexity of the task being performed by the driver. High-performance vehicles are able to achieve high levels of longitudinal acceleration and, sometimes, the power excess leads to the spinoff of the drive wheels, which decrease the ability of the tires to generate force, and consequently the vehicle acceleration. The proposed system acts in addition with the motor control, through the derivation of the motor speed signal, and its control by comparison with a predefined value. The control can delay or even suppress the ignition of the engine. Thus, the rate at which the engine gains speed, and consequently, the rate at which the vehicle accelerates, is limited.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Tire-Road Contact Forces: A Comparison between Artificial Neural Network and Observed Theory Approaches

2018-04-03
2018-01-0562
One of the principal goals of modern vehicle control systems is to ensure passenger safety during dangerous maneuvers. Their effectiveness relies on providing appropriate parameter inputs. Tire-road contact forces are among the most important because they provide helpful information that could be used to mitigate vehicle instabilities. Unfortunately, measuring these forces requires expensive instrumentation and is not suitable for commercial vehicles. Thus, accurately estimating them is a crucial task. In this work, two estimation approaches are compared, an observer method and a neural network learning technique. Both predict the lateral and longitudinal tire-road contact forces. The observer approach takes into account system nonlinearities and estimates the stochastic states by using an extended Kalman filter technique to perform data fusion based on the popular bicycle model.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Application of Auxiliary Cold Start System with the Fuel Distributor and the Extra Electronic Fuel Injector

2010-10-06
2010-36-0190
Along the last thirty years one of the challenges is to develop an engine working with ethanol with the same performance and characteristics of gasoline engines functioning at low temperatures. In Brazil the production expansion of flex fuel engines is the main motivation for technology development and research to improve the engine cold start and functioning, when using ethanol. The use of gasoline as an auxiliary in the cold start system is now the main characteristic of this system. In this work the performance of a new cold start system is analyzed. Tests were performed in a vehicle and the results show the potential of the new technology.
Technical Paper

Longitudinal Performance of a BAJA SAE Vehicle

2010-10-06
2010-36-0315
Driven by the necessity to reduce costs and improve products quality the automotive industry replaced the design method known as "trial and error" by those grounded on mathematical and physical theory. In this context, a longitudinal performance test was made by BAJA SAE UFMG team, in order to acquire vehicular performance data that will be used to validate computer models. The methodology consists of sensors and data acquisition system research, validation, fixation and installation in the vehicle, test and process of acquired data. From these steps, correlated data were acquired from magnitudes such as angular velocity in transmission shafts, global longitudinal acceleration and velocity, travel of break and throttle pedals and pressure inside of master cylinder. These results developed the knowledge about vehicular dynamic allowing the improvement of futures prototypes.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Finite Element Analysis to Develop Automotive Components

2010-10-06
2010-36-0004
The finite element method (FEM) is used daily in the automotive industry for such purposes as reducing the time of product development and improving the design based on analysis results, followed by later validation by tests in the laboratory and on the proving ground. This paper will present some of the methodology used to develop automotive components by finite element analysis, including procedures to specialize FEM models to obtain quantitative and qualitative results for systems such as body, chassis, and suspension components, as well as validation of the models by experimental data.
Technical Paper

Development of a Bench Durability Test to the Exhaust Attachment System

2010-10-06
2010-36-0005
For many years durability tests engineers have worked in the sense of improving the tests that, at first, were performed using public roads with high time consumption and low reproducibility. Proving grounds were specially designed to reproduce the most important efforts to the body and chassis systems, but time problem was still there. Time and cost reduction allied to the needs of quality, reliability and reproducibility improvement led the engineers to develop methods and equipments to reproduce the durability tests in the lab. In this way the road simulators appear as a powerful tool able to perform durability tests with high reliability, self-controlled and with very low time compared to the road tests. At this scenery bench tests were also created to components and systems mainly used to anticipate problems before a whole vehicle test.
Technical Paper

Stability Analysis of Automotive Supervisory Control: A Survey

2011-04-12
2011-01-0974
This paper focuses on stability of automotive supervisory control systems (ASCSs). It serves to introduce the concept of stability with respect to an entire ASCS. The realm of ASCSs is categorized and a brief description of pre-existing classical methods of stability analysis is presented. With the concept then having been fully introduced, an approach to evaluating stability of a key category of ASCS, the rule-based deterministic ASCS, is presented. This approach, cited from unrelated modern literature concerning stability of deterministic finite state machines, is novel in that its original target research area was not specifically automotive engineering.
Journal Article

Linear Quadratic Game Theory Approach to Optimal Preview Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion

2011-04-12
2011-01-0963
Vehicle stability is maintained by proper interactions between the driver and vehicle stability control system. While driver describes the desired target path by commanding steering angle and acceleration/deceleration rates, vehicle stability controller tends to stabilize higher dynamics of the vehicle by correcting longitudinal, lateral, and roll accelerations. In this paper, a finite-horizon optimal solution to vehicle stability control is introduced in the presence of driver's dynamical decision making structure. The proposed concept is inspired by Nash strategy for exactly known systems with more than two players, in which driver, commanding steering wheel angle, and vehicle stability controller, applying compensated yaw moment through differential braking strategy, are defined as the dynamic players of the 2-player differential linear quadratic game.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Design of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy

2013-04-08
2013-01-1753
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is participating in the 2011-2014 EcoCAR 2 competition in which the team is tasked with re-engineering the powertrain of a GM donated vehicle. The primary goals of the competition are to reduce well to wheels (WTW) petroleum energy use (PEU) and reduce WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions while maintaining performance, safety, and consumer acceptability. To meet these goals HEVT has designed a series parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with multiple modes of operation. This paper will first cover development of the control system architecture with a dual CAN bus structure to meet the requirements of the vehicle architecture. Next an online optimization control strategy to minimize fuel consumption will be developed. A simple vehicle plant model will then be used for software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing to improve fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Key Outcomes of Year One of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

2013-04-08
2013-01-0554
EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 28 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Journal Article

Using Performance Margin and Dynamic Simulation for Location Aware Adaptation of Vehicle Dynamics

2013-04-08
2013-01-0703
One seminal question that faces a vehicle's driver (either human or computer) is predicting the capability of the vehicle as it encounters upcoming terrain. A Performance Margin (PM) is defined in this work as the ratio of the required tractive effort to the available tractive effort for the front and rear respectively. This simple definition stems from and incorporates many traditional handling metrics and is robust in its scope of applicability. The PM is implemented in an Intervention Strategy demonstrating its use to avoid situations in which the vehicle exceeds its handling capabilities. Results from a design case study are presented to show the potential efficacy of developing a PM-based control system.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Heavy Vehicle EDR Technologies

2013-09-24
2013-01-2402
Heavy-vehicle event data recorders (HVEDRs) provide a source of temporal vehicle data just prior to, during, and for a short period after, an event. In the 1990s, heavy-vehicle (HV) engine manufacturers expanded the capabilities of engine control units (ECU) and engine control modules (ECM) to include the ability to record and store small amounts of parametric vehicle data. This advanced capability has had a significant impact on vehicle safety by helping law enforcement, engineers, and researchers reconstruct events of a vehicle crash and understand the details surrounding that vehicle crash. Today, EDR technologies have been incorporated into a wide range of heavy vehicle (HV) safety systems (e.g., crash mitigation systems, air bag control systems, and behavioral monitoring systems). However, the adoption of EDR technologies has not been uniform across all classes of HVs or their associated vehicle systems.
Technical Paper

Identification of Road Surface Friction for Vehicle Safety Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0885
A vehicle's response is predominately defined by the tire characteristics as they constitute the only contact between the vehicle and the road; and the surface friction condition is the primary attribute that determines these characteristics. The friction coefficient is not directly measurable through any sensor attachments in production-line vehicles. Therefore, current chassis control systems make use of various estimation methods to approximate a value. However a significant challenge is that these schemes require a certain level of perturbation (i.e. excitation by means of braking or traction) from the initial conditions to converge to the expected values; which might not be the case all the time during a regular drive.
Journal Article

Finite Element Modeling of Tire Transient Characteristics in Dynamic Maneuvers

2014-04-01
2014-01-0858
Studying the kinetic and kinematics of the rim-tire combination is very important in full vehicle simulations, as well as for the tire design process. Tire maneuvers are either quasi-static, such as steady-state rolling, or dynamic, such as traction and braking. The rolling of the tire over obstacles and potholes and, more generally, over uneven roads are other examples of tire dynamic maneuvers. In the latter case, tire dynamic models are used for durability assessment of the vehicle chassis, and should be studied using high fidelity simulation models. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) has been developed using the commercial software package ABAQUS. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tire dynamic behavior in multiple case studies in which the transient characteristics are highly involved.
Technical Paper

Development of Auditory Warning Signals for Mitigating Heavy Truck Rear-End Crashes

2010-10-05
2010-01-2019
Rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks occur with sufficient frequency that they are a cause of concern within regulatory agencies. In 2006, there were approximately 23,500 rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks which resulted in 135 fatalities. As part of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's (FMCSA) goal of reducing the overall number of truck crashes, the Enhanced Rear Signaling (ERS) for Heavy Trucks project was developed to investigate methods to reduce or mitigate those crashes where a heavy truck has been struck from behind by another vehicle. Researchers also utilized what had been learned in the rear-end crash avoidance work with light vehicles that was conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) with Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) serving as the prime research organization. ERS crash countermeasures investigated included passive conspicuity markings, visual signals, and auditory signals.
Technical Paper

Developing a Methodology to Synthesize Terrain Profiles and Evaluate their Statistical Properties

2011-04-12
2011-01-0182
The accuracy of computer-based ground vehicle durability and ride quality simulations depends on accurate representation of road surface topology as vehicle excitation data since most of the excitation exerted on a vehicle as it traverses terrain is provided by the terrain topology. It is currently not efficient to obtain accurate terrain profile data of sufficient length to simulate the vehicle being driven over long distances. Hence, durability and ride quality evaluations of a vehicle depend mostly on data collected from physical tests. Such tests are both time consuming and expensive, and can only be performed near the end of a vehicle's design cycle. This paper covers the development of a methodology to synthesize terrain profile data based on the statistical analysis of physically measured terrain profile data.
Journal Article

A Direct Yaw Control Algorithm for On- and Off-Road Yaw Stability

2011-04-12
2011-01-0183
Models for off-road vehicles, such as farm equipment and military vehicles, require an off-road tire model in order to properly understand their dynamic behavior on off-road driving surfaces. Extensive literature can be found for on-road tire modeling, but not much can be found for off-road tire modeling. This paper presents an off-road tire model that was developed for use in vehicle handling studies. An on-road, dry asphalt tire model was first developed by performing rolling road force and moment testing. Off-road testing was then performed on dirt and gravel driving surfaces to develop scaling factors that explain how the lateral force behavior of the tire will scale from an on-road to an off-road situation. The tire models were used in vehicle simulation software to simulate vehicle behavior on various driving surfaces. The simulated vehicle response was compared to actual maximum speed before sliding vs. turning radius data for the studied vehicle to assess the tire model.
Technical Paper

Assessment of High-Temperature Encapsulants for Planar Packages

2010-11-02
2010-01-1729
Seven encapsulants with operating temperatures up to 250°C were surveyed for use in planar packages for wide-bandgap dice. Two of the encapsulants failed processability test because they were not able to flow, and another two failed because they induced voids or cracks after curing. The dielectric results of the remaining three encapsulants showed that both dielectric strength and permittivity decreased almost 40% when the temperature was increased up to 250°C. As the three encapsulants were used to encapsulate a power module, it was proven that all of them could protect the package from early breakdown caused by the poor dielectric strength of air.
X