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Technical Paper

Proposal for Improving the Performance of Longitudinal Acceleration of a Land Vehicle

The present study introduces a proposal to improve the longitudinal performance of a land vehicle through the adoption of an unusual traction control system. The system is capable of improving the transfer of engine power to the ground and reduces the complexity of the task being performed by the driver. High-performance vehicles are able to achieve high levels of longitudinal acceleration and, sometimes, the power excess leads to the spinoff of the drive wheels, which decrease the ability of the tires to generate force, and consequently the vehicle acceleration. The proposed system acts in addition with the motor control, through the derivation of the motor speed signal, and its control by comparison with a predefined value. The control can delay or even suppress the ignition of the engine. Thus, the rate at which the engine gains speed, and consequently, the rate at which the vehicle accelerates, is limited.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Tire-Road Contact Forces: A Comparison between Artificial Neural Network and Observed Theory Approaches

One of the principal goals of modern vehicle control systems is to ensure passenger safety during dangerous maneuvers. Their effectiveness relies on providing appropriate parameter inputs. Tire-road contact forces are among the most important because they provide helpful information that could be used to mitigate vehicle instabilities. Unfortunately, measuring these forces requires expensive instrumentation and is not suitable for commercial vehicles. Thus, accurately estimating them is a crucial task. In this work, two estimation approaches are compared, an observer method and a neural network learning technique. Both predict the lateral and longitudinal tire-road contact forces. The observer approach takes into account system nonlinearities and estimates the stochastic states by using an extended Kalman filter technique to perform data fusion based on the popular bicycle model.
Technical Paper

Longitudinal Performance of a BAJA SAE Vehicle

Driven by the necessity to reduce costs and improve products quality the automotive industry replaced the design method known as "trial and error" by those grounded on mathematical and physical theory. In this context, a longitudinal performance test was made by BAJA SAE UFMG team, in order to acquire vehicular performance data that will be used to validate computer models. The methodology consists of sensors and data acquisition system research, validation, fixation and installation in the vehicle, test and process of acquired data. From these steps, correlated data were acquired from magnitudes such as angular velocity in transmission shafts, global longitudinal acceleration and velocity, travel of break and throttle pedals and pressure inside of master cylinder. These results developed the knowledge about vehicular dynamic allowing the improvement of futures prototypes.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Spray Pattern, Tip Penetration and Velocity Profiles of a Gasoline Direct Injection Injector Using High Speed Image Recording and Particle Image Velocimetry

This work shows procedures for analyzing sprays produced by a direct injection injector. The parameters studied were tip penetration, spray pattern, cone angles and velocity profiles. Two different experimental procedures were applied. The first one to get knowledge of the initial stage of injection consisted in recording images in 4000 Hz. With the data obtained, the penetrations and penetration rates were evaluated. The second experimental procedure consisted of using the Particle Image Velocimetry technique to get images and velocity data for getting knowledge of spray pattern, external and internal cone angle and velocity profiles of the spray fully developed. Gasoline and ethanol were the two fluids tested on the experiments. The results showed larger cone angles for gasoline, linear decreasing behavior for velocities on the linear velocity profiles and a transient stage for the magnitude of the velocities in the initial stage of injection.
Technical Paper

A Computational Methodology for Studying Sprays Characteristics of a Gasoline Direct Injection Injector

The focus of this study was to create a methodology to evaluate spray characteristics in a gasoline direct injection injector by means of an automatic process. Computational codes were used to get information about cone angle and breakup length based on images got from injection process. A mathematical function was created to locate the boundaries of the spray and the cone angle was studied as the angle of arcs situated within these boundaries. The centre of the arc was located on the orifice of the injector and a value of angle was associated with several distances from orifice. The breakup length was associated as a distance from the orifice of an arc formed by a group of pixels with the maximum standard deviation related to the values of these pixels. The velocity field was studied by the Particle Image Velocimetry technique. Three fluids were tested at this work: water, ethanol and gasoline.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicle Comfort under Human Vibration Perspective

This paper discusses the importance of vibration transmitted from the ground to the driver from the perspective of human whole-body vibration (WBV). The scope of analysis is to compare the main vehicle frequencies with those important from the human vibration health and comfort point of view. That was performed by mapping the vibration transmissibility present in different sub sections of the vehicle. The first is the transmissibility between the axles and the chassis rail, the following between the chassis rail and the cabin. The last would be between the cabin and the drivers' seat, although that was not possible from the acquisition point of view. The vehicles measured have mechanical suspension and elastomeric cabin coupling. It is known that all suspension systems in vehicle are highly nonlinear, although here linear dynamic analysis methods were used.
Technical Paper

Thermoelectric Generator Applied to a Baja SAE Vehicle

The limited thermal efficiency in internal combustion engines provides a partial transformation of fuel energy in net power. The heat lost through the exhaust gases represent a significant portion of energy looses. The Seebeck Effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences between two dissimilar metals or semiconductors into electrical voltage. The present study demonstrates the application of thermoelectric generators technology in Baja SAE vehicles to recovery exhaust heat looses, using thermal energy converter devices. The electrical energy produced in Seebeck Effect Cells, assembly in engine exhaust manifold, is conditioned and applied in vehicle batteries and supply energy consumption during vehicle operation. This action could increase the vehicle energy efficiency by the recovery the thermal energy dissipated. This extra power supply makes possible the reduction of on board batteries charge capacity and also recharges them without external power sources.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Diesel Engine Cylinder Pressure Modelling via NARMA Identification Technique

Future engine control systems need suitable and accurate models for combustion. For this purpose, this paper presents a practical application of nonlinear autoregressive moving average polynomial models with exogenous inputs (NARMAX) technique to model pressure dynamics inside the cylinder of a direct injection compression ignition engine. Two models have been investigated taking two different sets of input variables. The first model only includes basic injection settings available from the electronic control unit. The second model uses the instantaneous crankshaft revolution speed as a main model input. Model parameter identification and validation are performed with experimental data obtained from a test engine equipped with a piezoelectric pressure sensor and with data computed from a thermodynamic-based engine cycle simulation code.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Analysis of the Otto Cycle Engine Converted to Bi-Fuel Gasoline and Natural Gas (VNG)

This work presents a full analysis of a bi-fuel engine converted to natural gas and aims to survey the main performance losses and the advantages in specific consumption and toxic emissions. With this purpose, dynamometric tests and curves survey of a Fiat Palio 1.6, 16V engine, according to Standard NBR ISO 1585. Tests were made using diverse mixers, trying to obtain the losses caused by this device when the engine is working with gasoline, after the conversion. Tests were performed for different ignition advances, with manual and electronic VNG flow control systems. Trials for many differents low gear engine regulation, looking for consumption reduction and lower emission rates. The gas pressure reducer was tested with and without heating, showing differents results, mainly for emission rates. Other than comparing different components and different engine operation conditions, an analysis of two different natural gas conversion kits were performed, both extensile used in Brazil.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Combustion Model for Engine Analysis in Real Time

The analysis of engine’s performance, gas emissions and combustion parameters is critical in the development of internal combustion engines. The combustion parameters analysis provide important information to speed up real-time engine’s operation in order to shorter the process of engine’s map calibration. The real-time analysis of these parameters allows the detection of anomalies, such as the prediction of knocking event. From the measurement of the In-cylinder pressure curve and the use of a one-zone combustion model is possible to evaluate the heat release rate, mass burned fraction and average In-cylinder gas temperature. Aiming to expand the amount of real-time data available, such as unburned and burned gases temperature and volume, radius and velocity of turbulent spherical flame and turbulence factor, this paper presents a hybrid combustion model, being composed by coupling a two-zone model to a one-zone model.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Direct Injection into a Pressurized Chamber Using an Automatic Image Treatment Methodology

A multi-hole direct injection injector was studied by means of image analysis. Methodologies based on an automatic process of cone angle measurement and edge detection were applied for the spray images generated by a 100 bar injection pressure discharged into a pressurized rigid chamber. A criterion based on pixel values was taken to localize the spray edges as angular coordinates and also with x and y position data. The high pixel values were associated with liquid phase while the low pixel values were associated to its absence. Computational codes written in MATLAB environment were used to analyze the numerical matrices associated to the images. Using the written MATLAB codes, a comparison of the effect of atmospheric back pressure, inside the chamber, on the spray pattern, cone angle and spray penetration were evaluated. The chamber was pressurized with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 bar of back pressure. The tested fluid injected was EXXSOL D60 for simulating ethanol fuel behavior.
Technical Paper

Stratified Torch Ignition Engine: Performance Analysis

Global climate change and an increasing energy demand are driving the scientific community to further advance internal combustion engine technology. Invented by Sr. Henry Ricardo in 1918 the torch ignition system was able to significantly decrease engine’s fuel consumption and emission levels. Since the late 70s, soon after the Compound Vortex Controlled Combustion (CVCC) created by Honda, the torch ignition system R&D almost ceased due to the issues encountered by very complex and costly mechanic control systems that time. This work presents a stratified torch ignition prototype endowed with a sophisticated electronic control systems and components such as electro-injectors from direct injection systems placed on the pre-combustion chamber. The torch ignition prototype was tested and its performance are presented and compared with the baseline engine, which was used as a workhorse for the prototype engine construction.