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Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure in an Optically-Accessed DISI Engine with Side-Mounted Fuel Injector

2001-05-07
2001-01-1975
This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the effects of fuel injection pressure on mixture formation within an optically accessed direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Comparison is made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions due to supply rail pressures of 50 bar and 100 bar subject to part-warm, part-load homogeneous charge operating conditions. A constant fuel mass, corresponding to stoichiometric tune, was maintained for both supply pressures. The injected sprays and their subsequent liquid-phase fuel distributions were visualized using the 2-D laser Mie-scattering technique. The experimental injector (nominally a hollow-cone pressure-swirl design) was seen to produce a dense filled spray structure for both injection pressures under investigation. In both cases, the leading edge velocities of the main spray suggest the direct impingement of liquid fuel on the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Numerical Modelling of Flash-Boiling Fuel Sprays

2015-09-06
2015-24-2463
Flash-boiling of sprays may occur when a superheated liquid is discharged into an ambient environment with lower pressure than its saturation pressure. Such conditions normally exist in direct-injection spark-ignition engines operating at low in-cylinder pressures and/or high fuel temperatures. The addition of novel high volatile additives/fuels may also promote flash-boiling. Fuel flashing plays a significant role in mixture formation by promoting faster breakup and higher fuel evaporation rates compared to non-flashing conditions. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the characteristics of flashing sprays is necessary for the development of more efficient mixture formation. The present computational work focuses on modelling flash-boiling of n-Pentane and iso-Octane sprays using a Lagrangian particle tracking technique.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of Hydrogen Direct Injection for Internal Combustion Engines

2013-10-14
2013-01-2524
Hydrogen has been largely proposed as a possible fuel for internal combustion engines. The main advantage of burning hydrogen is the absence of carbon-based tailpipe emissions. Hydrogen's wide flammability also offers the advantage of very lean combustion and higher engine efficiency than conventional carbon-based fuels. In order to avoid abnormal combustion modes like pre-ignition and backfiring, as well as air displacement from hydrogen's large injected volume per cycle, direct injection of hydrogen after intake valve closure is the preferred mixture preparation method for hydrogen engines. The current work focused on computational studies of hydrogen injection and mixture formation for direct-injection spark-ignition engines. Hydrogen conditions at the injector's nozzle exit are typically sonic.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Flame Development with Hydrous and Anhydrous Ethanol Fuels in a Spark-Ignition Engine with Direct Injection and Port Injection Systems

2014-10-13
2014-01-2623
This paper presents a study of the combustion mechanism of hydrous and anhydrous ethanol in comparison to iso-octane and gasoline fuels in a single-cylinder spark-ignition research engine operated at 1000 rpm with 0.5 bar intake plenum pressure. The engine was equipped with optical access and tests were conducted with both Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and Direct Injection (DI) mixture preparation methods; all tests were conducted at stoichiometric conditions. The results showed that all alcohol fuels, both hydrous and anhydrous, burned faster than iso-octane and gasoline for both PFI and DI operation. The rate of combustion and peak cylinder pressure decreased with water content in ethanol for both modes of mixture preparation. Flame growth data were obtained by high-speed chemiluminescence imaging. These showed similar trends to the mass fraction burned curves obtained by in-cylinder heat release analysis for PFI operation; however, the trend with DI was not as consistent as with PFI.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Properties on Spray Development from a Multi-Hole DISI Engine Injector

2007-10-29
2007-01-4032
Extensive literature exists on spray development, mixing and combustion regarding engine modeling and diagnostics using single-component and model fuels. However, often the variation in data between different fuels, particularly relating to spray development and its effect on combustion, is neglected or overlooked. By injecting into a quiescent chamber, this work quantifies the differences in spray development from a multi-hole direct-injection spark-ignition engine injector for two single-component fuels (iso-octane and n-pentane), a non-fluorescing multi-component model fuel which may be used for in-cylinder Laser Induced Fluorescence experiments, and several grades of pump gasoline (with and without additives). High-speed recordings of the sprays were made for a range of fuel temperatures and gas pressures. It is shown that a fuel temperature above that of the lowest boiling point fraction of the tested fuel at the given gas pressure causes a convergence of the spray plumes.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation into the Liquid Sheet Break-Up of High-Pressure DISI Swirl Atomizers

2003-10-27
2003-01-3102
This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the liquid sheet break-up mechanisms of high-pressure swirl atomizers of the type commonly used in direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines. Sheet disintegration was investigated at two fuel pressures: 5 and 10 MPa, and three ambient back pressures: 50, 100 (atmospheric) and 200 kPa for a pre-production DISI injector. Microscopic images of the near-nozzle spray region were obtained with a high-speed rotating drum camera and copper vapour laser. For the range of conditions considered, the results show the initial break-up to occur in ‘perforated-sheet’ mode. A novel ‘void fraction’ analysis technique was applied to multiple images from the steady-state period of a single injection event in order to characterise and quantify details of the sheet break-up process. The sheet break-up lengths obtained by the authors were compared with the break-up lengths predicted by three commonly employed models from the literature.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fuelling System to Reduce Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Emissions in an SI Engine

1996-05-01
961119
An air-assisted fuel vaporiser (AAFV), designed to replace the conventional fuelling system has been tested on a 3.0-litre development engine under simulated cold-Start conditions. Providing the cold engine with pre-vaporised fuel removed the need for an enriched mixture during start-up. Comparisons between the AAFV and standard fuelling systems were performed. Engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) exhaust emissions were measured during cold-start and the ensuing two minutes. Fuel spray characterisation was also conducted using a steady flow test rig designed to mimic inlet port conditions of air flow and manifold pressure over a wide range of engine operation.
Journal Article

Investigations on Deposit Formation in the Holes of Diesel Injector Nozzles

2011-08-30
2011-01-1924
Current developments in fuels and emissions regulations are resulting in an increasingly severe operating environment for diesel fuel injection systems. The formation of deposits within the holes or on the outside of the injector nozzle can affect the overall system performance. The rate of deposit formation is affected by a number of parameters, including operating conditions and fuel composition. For the work reported here an accelerated test procedure was developed to evaluate the relative importance of some of these parameters in a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The resulting methodology produced measurable deposits in a custom-made injector nozzle on a single-cylinder engine. The results indicate that fuels containing 30%v/v and 100% Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) that does not meet EN 14214 produced more deposit than an EN590 petroleum diesel fuel.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Ethanol, Butanol, Iso-Octane and Gasoline Sprays and Combustion from a Multi-Hole Injector in a DISI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1591
Recent pressures on vehicle manufacturers to reduce their average fleet levels of CO2 emissions have resulted in an increased drive to improve fuel economy and enable use of fuels developed from renewable sources that can achieve a net reduction in the CO2 output of each vehicle. The most popular choice for spark-ignition engines has been the blending of ethanol with gasoline, where the ethanol is derived either from agricultural or cellulosic sources such as sugar cane, corn or decomposed plant matter. However, other fuels, such as butanol, have also arisen as potential candidates due to their similarities to gasoline, e.g. higher energy density than ethanol. To extract the maximum benefits from these new fuels through optimized engine design and calibration, an understanding of the behaviour of these fuels in modern engines is necessary.
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