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Journal Article

Observations on the Measurement and Performance Impact of Catalyzed vs. Non Catalyzed EGR on a Heavily Downsized DISI Engine

Increasingly stringent regulations and rising fuel costs require that automotive manufacturers reduce their fleet CO2 emissions. Gasoline engine downsizing is one such technology at the forefront of improvements in fuel economy. As engine downsizing becomes more aggressive, normal engine operating points are moving into higher load regions, typically requiring over-fuelling to maintain exhaust gas temperatures within component protection limits and retarded ignition timings in order to mitigate knock and pre-ignition events. These two mechanisms are counterproductive, since the retarded ignition timing delays combustion, in turn raising exhaust gas temperature. A key process being used to inhibit the occurrence of these knock and pre-ignition phenomena is cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Cooled EGR lowers temperatures during the combustion process, reducing the possibility of knock, and can thus reduce or eliminate the need for over-fuelling.
Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Engine Thermal Conditions on Performance, Emissions and Fuel Consumption

Engine thermal management systems (TMS) are gaining importance in engine development and calibration to achieve low fuel consumption and meet future emissions standards. To benefit from their full potential, a thorough understanding of the effects on engine behavior is necessary. Steady state tests were performed on a 2.0L direct injection diesel engine at different load points. A design of experiments (DoE) approach was used to conduct exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection timing swings at different coolant temperatures. The effect of the standard engine controller and calibration was observed during these tests. The injection timing strategy included a significant dependency on coolant temperature, retarding injection by about 3° crank angle between coolant temperatures of 70°C and 86°C. In contrast, EGR strategy was essentially independent of coolant temperature, though physical interactions were present due in part to the EGR cooler.
Technical Paper

A New Turboexpansion Concept in a Twin-Charged Engine System

Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Empirical Lumped-mass Approach to Modelling Heat Transfer in Automotive Turbochargers

When evaluating the performance of new boosting hardware, it is a challenge to isolate the heat transfer effects inherent within measured turbine and compressor efficiencies. This work documents the construction of a lumped mass turbocharger model in the MatLab Simulink environment capable of predicting turbine and compressor metal and gas outlet temperatures based on measured or simulated inlet conditions. A production turbocharger from a representative 2.2L common rail diesel engine was instrumented to enable accurate gas and wall temperature measurements to be recorded under a variety of engine operating conditions. Initially steady-state testing was undertaken across the engine speed and load range in order that empirical Reynolds-Nusselt heat transfer relationships could be derived and incorporated into the model. Steady state model predictions were validated against further experimental data.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Dynamic Performance Prediction by Volterra Series Model

Current turbocharger models are based on characteristic maps derived from experimental measurements taken under steady conditions on dedicated gas stand facility. Under these conditions heat transfer is ignored and consequently the predictive performances of the models are compromised, particularly under the part load and dynamic operating conditions that are representative of real powertrain operations. This paper proposes to apply a dynamic mathematical model that uses a polynomial structure, the Volterra Series, for the modelling of the turbocharger system. The model is calculated directly from measured performance data using an extended least squares regression. In this way, both compressor and turbine are modelled together based on data from dynamic experiments rather than steady flow data from a gas stand. The modelling approach has been applied to dynamic data taken from a physics based model, acting as a virtual test cell.
Technical Paper

Behaviours of a GDI Gasoline Engine during Start

Vehicle start-stop systems are becoming increasingly prevalent on internal combustion engine (ICE) because of the capability to reduce emissions and fuel consumption in a cost effective manner. Thus, the ICE undergoes far more starting events, therefore, the behaviour of ICE during start-up becomes critical. In order to simulate and optimise the engine start, Model in the Loop (MiL) simulation approach was selected. A proceduralised cranking test has been carried out on a 2.0-liter turbocharged, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine to collect data. The engine behaviour in the first 15 seconds was split into eight different phases and studied. The engine controller and the combustion system were highly transient and interactive. Thus, a controller model that can set accurate boundary conditions is needed. The relevant control functions of throttle opening and spark timing have been implemented in Matlab/Simulink to simulate the behaviours of the controller.
Technical Paper

Improving Heat Transfer and Reducing Mass in a Gasoline Piston Using Additive Manufacturing

Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing to the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power densities. Thus, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Forced Cool Down on Cold Start Test Repeatability

Increasing the number of cold-start engine cycles which could be run in any one day would greatly improve the productivity of an engine test facility. However with the introduction of forced cooling procedures there is the inherent risk that test-to-test repeatability will be affected. Therefore an investigation into the effects caused by forced cooling on fuel consumption and the temperature distribution through the engine and fluids is essential. Testing was completed on a 2.4 litre diesel engine running a cold NEDC. The test facility utilises a basic ventilation system, which draws in external ambient air, which is forced past the engine and then drawn out of the cell. This can be supplemented with the use of a spot cooling fan. The forced cool down resulted in a much quicker cool down which was further reduced with spot cooling, in the region of 25% reduction.
Technical Paper

Potential of a Controllable Engine Cooling System to Reduce NOx Emissions in Diesel Engines

This paper investigates the potential for reduced NOx emissions from the integration of thermal factors into the Diesel engine calibration process. NOx emissions from Diesel engines have been shown to be sensitive to engine operating temperature, which is directly related to the level of cooling applied to the engine, in addition to the main engine operating parameters such as injection timing and EGR ratio. Experimental engine characterization of the main engine parameters against coolant temperature set point shows that engine cooling settings can extend the feasible lower limits of fuel consumption and emissions output from Diesel engine. With the adoption of an integrated calibration methodology including engine cooling set point, NOx emissions can be improved by up to 30% at crucial high speed/load operating points seen in the NEDC drive cycle with a minor reduction in fuel economy and small increase in CO output.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effects of EGR Supply Configuration on Cylinder-to-Cylinder Dispersion and Engine Performance Using 1D-3D Co-Simulation

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is widely used in IC combustion engines for diluting air intake charge and controlling NOx emission. The rate of EGR required by an engine varies by the speed and load and control of the right amount entering the cylinders is crucial to ensure good engine performance and low NOx emission. However, controlling the amount of EGR entering the intake manifold does not ensure that EGR rate will be evenly distributed among the engine's cylinders. This can many times lead to cylinders operating at very high or low EGR rates which contradictory can deteriorate particulate matter and NOx emission. The present study analyses the cylinder-to-cylinder EGR dispersion of a 4 cylinder 2.2L EUROV Diesel engine and its effects on the combustion stability. A 1D-3D coupling simulation is performed using GT-Power and STAR-CCM+ to analyze the effects of intake manifold geometry and EGR supply configuration on the EGR homogeneity and cylinder-to-cylinder distribution.
Technical Paper

Position Estimation and Autonomous Control of a Quad Vehicle

The major contribution of this paper is the general description of a complete integrating procedure of autonomous vehicle system. Using Robot Operating System (ROS) as the framework, process from senor integration to path planning and path tracking were performed. Based on an off-road All-Terrain Vehicle, an Extended Kalman filter based autonomous control strategy was developed on the ROS. Both the position estimation and autonomous control were performed on the ROS platform. For the position estimation phase, sensory measurements from GPS, IMU and wheel odometry were acquired and processed on ROS. In accordance with the ROS architecture, separate packages were developed for each sensor to gather and publish corresponding measurements. Furthermore, Extended Kalman filtering was performed to fuse all sensory measurements to achieve an optimizing accuracy.
Technical Paper

A Study on Dynamic Torque Cancellation in a Range Extender Unit

A range extended electric vehicle (REEV) has the benefit of zero pipeline emission for most of the daily commute driving using the full electric mode while maintaining the capability for a long-range trip without the requirement of stop-and-charge. This capability is provided by the on-board auxiliary power unit (APU) which is used to maintain the battery state of charge at a minimum limit. Due to the limited APU package size, a small capacity engine with low-cylindercount is normally used which inherently exposes more severe torque pulsation, that arises from a low firing frequency. By using vector control, it is feasible to vary the generator in-cycle torque to counteract the engine torque oscillation dynamically. This allows for a smoother operation of the APU with the possibility of reducing the size of the engine flywheel. In this paper, a series of motor/generator control torque patterns were applied with the aim of cancelling the engine in-cycle torque pulses.
Technical Paper

Review of Turbocharger Mapping and 1D Modelling Inaccuracies with Specific Focus on Two-Stag Systems

The adoption of two stage serial turbochargers in combination with internal combustion engines can improve the overall efficiency of powertrain systems. In conjunction with the increase of engine volumetric efficiency, two stage boosting technologies are capable of improving torque and pedal response of small displacement engines. In two stage sequential systems, high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbochargers are packaged in a way that the exhaust gases access the LP turbine after exiting the HP turbine. On the induction side, fresh air is compressed sequentially by LP and HP compressors. The former is able to deliver elevated pressure ratios, but it is not able to highly compressor low flow rates of air. The latter turbo-machine can increase charge pressure at lower mass air flow and be by-passed at high rates of air flow.
Technical Paper

Integrated Cooling Systems for Passenger Vehicles

Electric coolant pumps for IC engines are under development by a number of suppliers. They offer packaging and flexibility benefits to vehicle manufacturers. Their full potential will not be realised, however, unless an integrated approach is taken to the entire cooling system. The paper describes such a system comprising an advanced electric pump with the necessary flow controls and a supervisory strategy running on an automotive microprocessor. The hardware and control strategy are described together with the simulation developed to allow its calibration and validation before fitting in a B/C class European passenger car. Simulation results are presented which show the system to be controllable and responsive to deliver optimum fuel consumption, emissions and driver comfort.
Technical Paper

Transient Investigation of Two Variable Geometry Turbochargers for Passenger Vehicle Diesel Engines

The use of variable geometry turbocharging (VGT) as an aid to performance enhancement has been the subject of much interest for use in high-speed, light-duty automotive diesel applications in recent times (4). One of the key benefits anticipated is the improved transient response possible with such a device over the conventional fixed geometry turbine with wastegate. The transient responses of two different types of variable geometry turbocharger have been investigated on a dynamic engine test bed. To demonstrate the effect of the turbocharger on the entire system a series of step changes in engine load at constant engine speed were carried out with the turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems under the control of the engine management microprocessor. Results are presented which compare the different performance and emissions characteristics of the devices. Some control issues are discussed with a view to improving the transient response of both types.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Steady State NOx Levels from an Automotive Diesel Engine Using Optimised VGT/EGR Schedules

Currently, 80% of European diesel passenger cars are turbocharged and as emission standards become more stringent exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) will be the primary means of suppressing oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The lighter the load the greater will be the combustion tolerance to increased EGR flow rates and hence increased NOx suppression. Automotive diesel engines using wastegated turbochargers cannot recirculate above 50% EGR without some sort of “added” device or system, which is able to displace the inlet fresh air charge. This has been demonstrated by throttling the diesel intake to reduce the fresh air inlet manifold pressure so allowing more EGR flow by virtue of a higher exhaust-side pressure due the effects of the turbocharger. The method reported here investigates a different approach to increasing the EGR rates by replacing a fixed geometry turbocharger (FGT) with a variable geometry turbocharger, (VGT).
Technical Paper

A Neural Network for Fault Recognition

In both the marine and power industries there are now a choice of off-the-shelf condition monitoring systems available that utilise artificial intelligence techniques to analyse engine performance data. These systems are proving to be a valuable aid in optimising performance and reducing down-time by assisting with maintenance planning. These systems rely on careful monitoring of an engine's performance, for instance engine speed, fuelling, boost pressure, turbine inlet pressure, turbocharger speed, and exhaust temperature. With this data, they utilise a variety of interpolation and pattern recognition algorithms to compare it with previously recorded data stored in lookup tables. This paper describes how a neural network approach can be used as a cheap alternative for the analysis of this data, greatly reducing the need for such large lookup tables and complex pattern recognition programs.
Technical Paper

Incorporating Nucleate Boiling in a Precision Cooling Strategy for Combustion Engines

Precision cooling has a number of advantages over the conventional cooling of combustion engines. It is primarily used to prevent component failures and is generally intended to create an even distribution of temperature within the cylinder head and block. This leads to lower thermal stresses and higher component durability. Precision cooling in the form of forced convection and nucleate boiling can be used to greater effect than that of traditional precision cooling concentrating on forced convection only. This paper describes the analytical and experimental precision cooling strategy that has been used to investigate nucleate and transition boiling. Analytical details of the models are described and preliminary experimental data is provided for comparison. The major finding indicates that the diameter of the internal cooling passage is one of the significant factors that influences the critical heat flux.
Technical Paper

Optimising Cooling System Performance Using Computer Simulation

This paper presents a lumped parameter method for whole circuit simulation of vehicle cooling systems using the Bathfp simulation environment. The dynamic performance of a 1.8 litre internal combustion engine cooling system is examined. The simulation is compared with experimental data from a test rig incorporating a non-running engine with external heat source and a good correspondence is achieved. The background to the modelling approach is described. It is shown that simulating cooling systems with Bathfp offers the designer the flexibility to assess component sensitivity and changes in system configuration which will aid the process of cooling system optimisation.