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Technical Paper

Fixturing and Tooling for Wing Assembly with Reconfigurable Datum System Pickup

The aerospace manufacturing sector is continuously seeking automation due to increased demand for the next generation single-isle aircraft. In order to reduce weight and fuel consumption aircraft manufacturers have increasingly started to use more composites as part of the structure. The manufacture and assembly of composites poses different constraints and challenges compared to the more traditional aircraft build consisting of metal components. In order to overcome these problems and to achieve the desired production rate existing manufacturing technologies have to be improved. New technologies and build concepts have to be developed in order to achieve the rate and ramp up of production and cost saving. This paper investigates how to achieve the rib hole key characteristic (KC) in a composite wing box assembly process. When the rib hole KC is out of tolerances, possibly, the KC can be achieved by imposing it by means of adjustable tooling and fixturing elements.
Technical Paper

A New Turboexpansion Concept in a Twin-Charged Engine System

Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft.
Journal Article

Octane Appetite: The Relevance of a Lower Limit to the MON Specification in a Downsized, Highly Boosted DISI Engine

Market demand for high performance gasoline vehicles and increasingly strict government emissions regulations are driving the development of highly downsized, boosted direct injection engines. The in-cylinder temperatures and pressures of these emerging technologies tend to no longer adhere to the test conditions defining the RON and MON octane rating scales. This divergence between fuel knock rating methods and fuel performance in modern engines has previously led to the development of an engine and operating condition dependent scaling factor, K, which allows for extrapolation of RON and MON values. Downsized, boosted DISI engines have been generally shown to have negative K-values when knock limited, indicating a preference for fuels of higher sensitivity and challenging the relevance of a lower limit to the MON specification.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Dynamic Performance Prediction by Volterra Series Model

Current turbocharger models are based on characteristic maps derived from experimental measurements taken under steady conditions on dedicated gas stand facility. Under these conditions heat transfer is ignored and consequently the predictive performances of the models are compromised, particularly under the part load and dynamic operating conditions that are representative of real powertrain operations. This paper proposes to apply a dynamic mathematical model that uses a polynomial structure, the Volterra Series, for the modelling of the turbocharger system. The model is calculated directly from measured performance data using an extended least squares regression. In this way, both compressor and turbine are modelled together based on data from dynamic experiments rather than steady flow data from a gas stand. The modelling approach has been applied to dynamic data taken from a physics based model, acting as a virtual test cell.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterisation of Heat Transfer in Exhaust Pipe Sections

This paper describes the characterisation of heat transfer in a series of 11 test sections designed to represent a range of configurations seen in production exhaust systems, which is part of a larger activity aimed at the accurate modeling of heat transfer and subsequent catalyst light off in production exhaust systems comprised of similar geometries. These sections include variations in wall thickness, diameter, bend angle and radius. For each section a range of transient and steady state tests were performed on a dynamic test cell using a port injected gasoline engine. In each case a correlation between observed Reynolds number (Re) and Nusselt number (Nu) was developed. A model of the system was implemented in Matlab/Simulink in which each pipe element was split into 25 sub-elements by dividing the pipe into five both axially and radially. The modeling approach was validated using the experimental data.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Forced Cool Down on Cold Start Test Repeatability

Increasing the number of cold-start engine cycles which could be run in any one day would greatly improve the productivity of an engine test facility. However with the introduction of forced cooling procedures there is the inherent risk that test-to-test repeatability will be affected. Therefore an investigation into the effects caused by forced cooling on fuel consumption and the temperature distribution through the engine and fluids is essential. Testing was completed on a 2.4 litre diesel engine running a cold NEDC. The test facility utilises a basic ventilation system, which draws in external ambient air, which is forced past the engine and then drawn out of the cell. This can be supplemented with the use of a spot cooling fan. The forced cool down resulted in a much quicker cool down which was further reduced with spot cooling, in the region of 25% reduction.
Technical Paper

Design and Component Matching of a Pressure Control Circuit

Problems inherent in pressure control circuits are manifest in many common applications such as those of cushion control, and bumpless transfer between displacement and pressure control. Often, solutions involve complex electrical feedback systems to achieve the required performance characteristics. However, in many cases, a thorough understanding of the plant and control circuit should enable fulfilment of these requirements using a simple and inexpensive open-loop system. In this case the plant is an automotive CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) which has particular performance requirements. Constraints applied by the plant characteristics dictate that large flows be catered for with a low pressure increase and also that specific frequency response features are attained.
Technical Paper

Investigation of ‘Sweep’ Mapping Approach on Engine Testbed

Steady state mapping is fundamental to optimizing IC engine operation. Engine variables are set, a predefined settling time elapses, and then engine data are logged. This is an accurate but time consuming approach to engine testing. In contrast the sweep method seeks to speed up data capture by continuously moving the engine through its operating envelope without dwelling. This is facilitated by the enhanced capability of modern test rig control systems. The purpose of this work is to compare the accuracy and repeatability of the sweep approach under experimental conditions, with that of steady state testing. Limiting factors for the accuracy of the sweep approach fall into two categories. Firstly on the instrumentation side - transducers have a characteristic settling time. Secondly on the engine side - thermal and mechanical inertias will mean that instantaneous measurements of engine parameters differ from the steady state values.
Technical Paper

Potential for Fuel Economy Improvements by Reducing Frictional Losses in a Pushing Metal V-Belt CVT

This paper gives an overview of the development of a number of loss models for the pushing metal V-belt CVT. These were validated using a range of experimental data collected from two test rigs. There are several contributions to the torque losses and new models have been developed that are based upon relative motion between belt components and pulley deflections. Belt slip models will be proposed based upon published theory, expanded to take account of new findings from this work. The paper introduces a number of proposals to improve the efficiency of the transmission based on redesign of the belt geometry and other techniques to reduce frictional losses between components. These proposed efficiency improvements have been modelled and substituted into a complete vehicle simulation to show improvements in vehicle fuel economy over a standard European drive cycle.
Journal Article

Analysis of a Diesel Passenger Car Behavior On-Road and over Certification Duty Cycles

Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Prediction of Power Steering Vane Pump Fluidborne Noise

The design of quiet power steering vane pumps requires accurate experimental and analytical tools to assess fluidborne noise. Measurement of vane pump fluidborne noise-generating potential must minimize hydraulic circuit effects. The difficulties of distinguishing between pump and hydraulic circuit effects is discussed. A technique called the “secondary source” method for measuring positive displacement pump flow ripple is described. The technique allows evaluation of the pump discharge impedance and flow ripple based on the analysis of the wave propagation characteristics in a special test circuit. This test method is used to validate a computer model of the vane pump flow ripple at the rotating group discharge. The model computes the vane chamber pressure histories which are used to obtain net discharge flow ripple. Geometric definition is kept flexible in the model so that compression and leakage can be evaluated for any vane pump design.
Technical Paper

Erosive Wear Measurement in Spool Valves

The authors describe the early stages of a programme to investigate the wear sensitivity of spool valves to abrasive contaminant in the fluid flow. Wear mechanisms in valves and aspects of test rig design are discussed. Methods of assessing wear are considered, both during and after completion of a test. Preliminary results are presented to highlight the difference between these methods and illustrate the changes in geometry that take place during the wear test.
Technical Paper

Computational and Experimental Investigation of Airflow Through a Vehicle Intercooler Duct

The last decade has seen a rapid increase within industry of the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to assist in the design and development phase of product manufacture. There have recently evolved many new commercial CFD codes, both general and problem specific, but little validation data is available with which the engineer may assess the code's ability to simulate accurately a given flow problem. Much doubt prevails about current methods of turbulence modelling yet without comparison with experimental data few firm conclusions may be drawn. The work described in this paper is an investigation into the highly turbulent air flow through a vehicle intercooler duct. The general purpose CFD code STAR CD was used to obtain a computational prediction of the flow field. These results were correlated with experimental values of velocity and turbulence levels obtained using a single component laser Doppler anemometry system.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Alternative Methods for Gas Flow and Performance Prediction of Internal Combustion Engines

A comprehensive general purpose engine simulation model has been successfully developed. This paper reports on an investigation undertaken to compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of four alternative methods for modelling the gas flow and performance in internal combustion engines. The comparison is based on the filling-and-emptying method, the acoustic method, the Lax-Wendroff two-stage difference method and the Harten-Lax-Leer upstream method, using a unified treatment for the boundary conditions. The filling-and-emptying method is the quickest method among these four methods, giving performance predictions with reasonably good accuracy, and is suitable for simulating engines using not highly tuned gas exchange systems. Based on the linearized Euler equations, the acoustic method is capable of describing time-varying pressure distributions along a pipe.
Technical Paper

Optimising Cooling System Performance Using Computer Simulation

This paper presents a lumped parameter method for whole circuit simulation of vehicle cooling systems using the Bathfp simulation environment. The dynamic performance of a 1.8 litre internal combustion engine cooling system is examined. The simulation is compared with experimental data from a test rig incorporating a non-running engine with external heat source and a good correspondence is achieved. The background to the modelling approach is described. It is shown that simulating cooling systems with Bathfp offers the designer the flexibility to assess component sensitivity and changes in system configuration which will aid the process of cooling system optimisation.
Journal Article

Assessing the Impact of FAME and Diesel Fuel Composition on Stability and Vehicle Filter Blocking

In recent years, there has been an impetus in the automotive industry to develop newer diesel injection systems with a view to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. This development has led to hardware capable of higher pressures, typically up to 2500 bar. An increase in pressure will result in a corresponding increase in fuel temperature after compression with studies showing changes in fuel temperatures of up to 150 °C in 1000-2500 bar injection systems. Until recently, the addition of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, FAME, to diesel had been blamed for a number of fuel system durability issues such as injector deposits and fuel filter blocking. Despite a growing acceptance within the automotive and petrochemical industries that FAME is not solely to blame for diesel instability, there is a lack of published literature in the area, with many studies still focusing on FAME oxidation to explain deposit formation and hardware durability.
Technical Paper

Sub-23 nm Particulate Emissions from a Highly Boosted GDI Engine

The European Particle Measurement Program (PMP) defines the current standard for measurement of Particle Number (PN) emissions from vehicles in Europe. This specifies a 50% count efficiency (D50) at 23 nm and a 90% count efficiency (D90) at 41 nm. Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been widely studied, but usually only in the context of PMP or similar sampling procedures. There is increasing interest in the smallest particles - i.e. smaller than 23 nm - which can be emitted from vehicles. The literature suggest that by moving D50 to 10 nm, PN emissions from GDI engines might increase by between 35 and 50% but there remains a lot of uncertainty.