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Technical Paper

Integrated Cooling Systems for Passenger Vehicles

Electric coolant pumps for IC engines are under development by a number of suppliers. They offer packaging and flexibility benefits to vehicle manufacturers. Their full potential will not be realised, however, unless an integrated approach is taken to the entire cooling system. The paper describes such a system comprising an advanced electric pump with the necessary flow controls and a supervisory strategy running on an automotive microprocessor. The hardware and control strategy are described together with the simulation developed to allow its calibration and validation before fitting in a B/C class European passenger car. Simulation results are presented which show the system to be controllable and responsive to deliver optimum fuel consumption, emissions and driver comfort.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Test Precision in Latest Vehicle Technologies

Demonstrating the cost/benefits of technologies in the automotive sector is becoming very challenging because the benefits from technologies are sometimes of similar magnitude to testing precision. This paper aims to understand vehicle-borne imprecision and the effect of this on the quality of chassis dynamometer (CD) testing. Fuel consumption and NOx emissions precision is analyzed for two diesel vehicles with particulate filter and SCR systems. The two vehicles were tested on a high precision CD facility over the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) and WLTC (World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle) cycles. The CD base precision of testing was characterized between 0.6-3% depending on the cycle phase. A novel application of multi-variate statistical analysis was used to identify the factors that affected testing precision, allowing isolation of small differences that were not obvious when conducting cycle-averaged or cycle-phase-averaged analysis.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Engine Thermal Conditions on Performance, Emissions and Fuel Consumption

Engine thermal management systems (TMS) are gaining importance in engine development and calibration to achieve low fuel consumption and meet future emissions standards. To benefit from their full potential, a thorough understanding of the effects on engine behavior is necessary. Steady state tests were performed on a 2.0L direct injection diesel engine at different load points. A design of experiments (DoE) approach was used to conduct exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection timing swings at different coolant temperatures. The effect of the standard engine controller and calibration was observed during these tests. The injection timing strategy included a significant dependency on coolant temperature, retarding injection by about 3° crank angle between coolant temperatures of 70°C and 86°C. In contrast, EGR strategy was essentially independent of coolant temperature, though physical interactions were present due in part to the EGR cooler.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Forced Cool Down on Cold Start Test Repeatability

Increasing the number of cold-start engine cycles which could be run in any one day would greatly improve the productivity of an engine test facility. However with the introduction of forced cooling procedures there is the inherent risk that test-to-test repeatability will be affected. Therefore an investigation into the effects caused by forced cooling on fuel consumption and the temperature distribution through the engine and fluids is essential. Testing was completed on a 2.4 litre diesel engine running a cold NEDC. The test facility utilises a basic ventilation system, which draws in external ambient air, which is forced past the engine and then drawn out of the cell. This can be supplemented with the use of a spot cooling fan. The forced cool down resulted in a much quicker cool down which was further reduced with spot cooling, in the region of 25% reduction.
Technical Paper

A Driver Advisory Tool to Reduce Fuel Consumption

Driver behaviour can strongly affect fuel consumption, and driver training in eco-driving techniques has been shown to reduce fuel consumption by 10% on average. However the effects of this training can be short-lived, so there is an apparent need for continuous monitoring of driver behaviour. This study presents a driver advisory tool which encourages eco-driving, and its evaluation in the field. The system, developed by Ashwoods Automotive Ltd (UK) and the University of Bath (UK), is aimed at fleet operators of light commercial vehicles, where the driver is typically a company employee. A significant strength of the system is that it has been designed for easy integration with the vehicle CAN-bus, reducing complexity and cost. By considering the Inertial Power Surrogate (speed times acceleration) the core algorithm is able to identify behaviour which is likely to increase fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Low Cost High Performance Hybrid Vehicle Electric Motor

A large proportion of automotive engineering research is focused on the reduction of vehicle fuel consumption thereby reducing CO₂ emissions. One effective method is to use an electric motor in conjunction with the engine (hybrid electric vehicle). This paper details the development and performance characteristics of a low cost hybrid vehicle electric motor, originally developed for the retrofit hybrid vehicle market, although it is intended to be suitable for many applications. The motor is a low cost, scalable, high performance motor, primarily for automotive applications. The motor has been designed to make it stackable for higher power or torque requirements. The use of lightweight materials and innovative cooling designs are novel to this motor. Results obtained from extensive testing of the motor are detailed in the paper including the efficiency map, power and torque curves, continuous powers, etc.
Technical Paper

Behaviours of a GDI Gasoline Engine during Start

Vehicle start-stop systems are becoming increasingly prevalent on internal combustion engine (ICE) because of the capability to reduce emissions and fuel consumption in a cost effective manner. Thus, the ICE undergoes far more starting events, therefore, the behaviour of ICE during start-up becomes critical. In order to simulate and optimise the engine start, Model in the Loop (MiL) simulation approach was selected. A proceduralised cranking test has been carried out on a 2.0-liter turbocharged, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine to collect data. The engine behaviour in the first 15 seconds was split into eight different phases and studied. The engine controller and the combustion system were highly transient and interactive. Thus, a controller model that can set accurate boundary conditions is needed. The relevant control functions of throttle opening and spark timing have been implemented in Matlab/Simulink to simulate the behaviours of the controller.
Technical Paper

Development of a Low Cost Production Automotive Engine for Range Extender Application for Electric Vehicles

Range Extended Electric Vehicles (REEVs) are gaining popularity due to their simplicity, reduced emissions and fuel consumption when compared to parallel or series/parallel hybrid vehicles. The range extender internal combustion engine (ICE) can be optimised to a number of steady state points which offers significant improvement in overall exhaust emissions. One of the key challenges in such vehicles is to reduce the overall powertrain costs, and OEMs providing REEVs such as the BMW i3 have included the range extender as an optional extra due to increasing costs on the overall vehicle price. This paper discusses the development of a low cost Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) of c.25 kW for a range extender application utilising a 624 cc two cylinder automotive gasoline engine. Changes to the base engine are limited to those required for range extender development purposes and include prototype control system, electronic throttle, redesigned manifolds and calibration on European grade fuel.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Steady State NOx Levels from an Automotive Diesel Engine Using Optimised VGT/EGR Schedules

Currently, 80% of European diesel passenger cars are turbocharged and as emission standards become more stringent exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) will be the primary means of suppressing oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The lighter the load the greater will be the combustion tolerance to increased EGR flow rates and hence increased NOx suppression. Automotive diesel engines using wastegated turbochargers cannot recirculate above 50% EGR without some sort of “added” device or system, which is able to displace the inlet fresh air charge. This has been demonstrated by throttling the diesel intake to reduce the fresh air inlet manifold pressure so allowing more EGR flow by virtue of a higher exhaust-side pressure due the effects of the turbocharger. The method reported here investigates a different approach to increasing the EGR rates by replacing a fixed geometry turbocharger (FGT) with a variable geometry turbocharger, (VGT).
Technical Paper

Dynamic Behaviour of a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Many Diesel engine development programs concentrate almost exclusively on steady state investigations to benchmark an engines performance. In reality, the inter-action of an engine's sub-systems under transient evaluation is very different from that evident during steady state evaluation. The transient operation of a complete engine system is complex, and collecting test data is very demanding, requiring sophisticated facilities for both control and measurement. This paper highlights the essential characteristics of a Diesel engine when undertaking testbed transient manouevres. Results from simple transient sequences typical of on-road operation are presented. The tests demonstrate how transient behaviour of the engine deviates greatly from the steady state optimum settings used to control the engine.
Technical Paper

Potential of a Controllable Engine Cooling System to Reduce NOx Emissions in Diesel Engines

This paper investigates the potential for reduced NOx emissions from the integration of thermal factors into the Diesel engine calibration process. NOx emissions from Diesel engines have been shown to be sensitive to engine operating temperature, which is directly related to the level of cooling applied to the engine, in addition to the main engine operating parameters such as injection timing and EGR ratio. Experimental engine characterization of the main engine parameters against coolant temperature set point shows that engine cooling settings can extend the feasible lower limits of fuel consumption and emissions output from Diesel engine. With the adoption of an integrated calibration methodology including engine cooling set point, NOx emissions can be improved by up to 30% at crucial high speed/load operating points seen in the NEDC drive cycle with a minor reduction in fuel economy and small increase in CO output.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Electro-Hydraulic Steering Systems

The reduction of fuel consumption in vehicles remains an important target in vehicle development to meet the carbon dioxide emission reduction target. One of the significant consumers of energy in a vehicle is the hydraulic power-assisted steering system (HPS) powered by the engine belt drive. To reduce the energy consumption an electric motor can be used to drive the pump (electro-hydraulic power steering or EHPS). In this work a simulation model was developed and validated to model the energy consumption of the whole steering system. This includes an advanced friction model for the steering rack, a physically modeled steering valve, the hydraulic pump and the electric motor with the control unit. The model is used to investigate the influence of various parameters on the energy consumption for different road situations. The results identified the important parameters influencing the power consumption and showed the potential to reduce the power consumption of the system.
Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Impact of FAME and Diesel Fuel Composition on Stability and Vehicle Filter Blocking

In recent years, there has been an impetus in the automotive industry to develop newer diesel injection systems with a view to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. This development has led to hardware capable of higher pressures, typically up to 2500 bar. An increase in pressure will result in a corresponding increase in fuel temperature after compression with studies showing changes in fuel temperatures of up to 150 °C in 1000-2500 bar injection systems. Until recently, the addition of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, FAME, to diesel had been blamed for a number of fuel system durability issues such as injector deposits and fuel filter blocking. Despite a growing acceptance within the automotive and petrochemical industries that FAME is not solely to blame for diesel instability, there is a lack of published literature in the area, with many studies still focusing on FAME oxidation to explain deposit formation and hardware durability.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
Technical Paper

Testing of a Modern Wankel Rotary Engine - Part I: Experimental Plan, Development of the Software Tools and Measurement Systems

Wankel rotary engines are becoming an increasingly popular area of research with regard to their use as a range extender in the next generation of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). Due to their simple design, lightness, compactness and very favourable power-to-weight ratio, they represent one of the best alternative solutions to classic reciprocating piston engines. On the other hand, current Wankel engines still need improvements in terms of specific fuel consumption and emissions. This paper describes an innovative approach for the assessment of the performance of a modern rotary engine. All the experimental activities will be carried out within the Innovate UK funded ADAPT Intelligent Powertrain project led by Westfield Sportscars Limited.