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Technical Paper

Exhaust-Gas Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

1993-04-01
931096
This paper presents the findings of theoretical and practical studies of an exhaust-gas reforming process, as applied to hydrocarbon fuels. It is shown that hydrogen-containing gaseous reformed fuels can be produced by the interaction of hot combustion products and an n-heptane feedstock in a small-scale catalytic reforming reactor. Predicted and observed reformed fuel chemical compositions were found to correlate well at the lower reactor space velocities tested, where chemical equilibrium conditions can be closely approached. Under these conditions, respective hydrogen and carbon monoxide yields of around 32 and 20 volume per cent were obtained. Under certain conditions, it was found that carbon solids were deposited on the reforming catalyst. Measures taken to avoid this problem included changes in the reforming oxidant to fuel ratio, and the addition of excess steam to the oxidant composition.
Technical Paper

Comparative Experimental Study on Microscopic Spray Characteristics of RME, GTL and Diesel

2010-10-25
2010-01-2284
In this paper, the microscopic spray characteristics of diesel, Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuel, were studied at different injection pressures and measuring positions using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique and the velocity development and size distributions of the fuel droplets were analysed in order to understand spray atomisation process. The injection pressures ranged from 80MPa to 150MPa, and the measuring position varied from 20mm to 70mm downstream the nozzle. It was found that the data rate is quite low in the near nozzle region and at high injection pressure. Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of all fuels obviously decreases when the injection pressure increases from 80MPa to 120MPa; but the injection pressure has little promotion on the axial velocity of droplets.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Role of Filtered EGR on PM Emissions

2011-08-30
2011-01-2080
In earlier work we have shown that engine operation with oxygenated fuels (e.g., biodiesel) reduces the particulate matter (PM) emissions and extends the engine tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) before it reaches smoke limited conditions. The same result has also been reported when high cetane number fuels such as gas-to-liquid (GTL) are used. A likely mechanism for engine-out particulate growth is the reintroduction of particle nuclei into the cylinder through EGR. These recirculated PM particles serve as sites for further condensation and accumulation promoting larger and greater number of particles. In order to further our understanding of EGR influence on total PM production, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) was integrated into the EGR loop. A PM reduction of approximately 50% (soot) was achieved with diesel fuel through filtered EGR, whilst still maintaining a significant NOX reduction.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions when First Generation Meets Next Generation Biodiesel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1935
Limits on the total future potential of biodiesel fuel due to the availability of raw materials mean that ambitious 20% fuel replacement targets will need to be met by the use of both first and next generation biodiesel fuels. The use of higher percentage biodiesel blends requires engine recalibration, as it affects engine performance, combustion patterns and emissions. Previous work has shown that the combustion of 50:50 blends of biodiesel fuels (first generation RME and next generation synthetic fuel) can give diesel fuel-like performance (i.e. in-cylinder pressure, fuel injection and heat release patterns). This means engine recalibration can be avoided, plus a reduction in all the regulated emissions. Using a 30% biodiesel blend (with different first and next generation proportions) mixed with Diesel may be a more realistic future fuel.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Air Intake System with Negative Pressure on Intake Grill

2008-06-23
2008-01-1643
The objective of the current research was to predict and analyze the flow through the grill of air intake system which is positioned behind the front wheel arch of vehicle. Most of the vehicle used today locates the grill of air intake at the front side so to acquire benefit of ram effect. In some cases, however, the grill is located behind the vehicle to improve wading performance. The geometry of air intake system of Land Rover Freelander was used in the modelling approach. The study was focused on different flow speeds on the grill at high load operation where the air speed at the grill side is high and creates negative pressure. The CFD results are validated against experimental data of steady flow test bench.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emissions and Exhaust-Gas Reforming of an Emulsified Fuel: A Comparative Study with Conventional Diesel Fuel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1809
The fuel reforming technology has been extensively investigated as a way to produce hydrogen on-board a vehicle that can be utilized in internal combustion engines, fuel cells and aftertreatment technologies. Maximization of H2 production in the reforming process can be achieved when there is optimized water (steam) addition for the different reforming temperatures. A way to increase the already available water quantity on-board a vehicle (i.e. exhaust gas water content) is by using emulsified fuel (e.g. water-diesel blend). This study presents the effect of an emulsified diesel fuel (a blend of water and diesel fuel with an organic surfactant to make the mixture stable) on combustion in conjunction with exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming on a compression ignition engine. No engine modification was required to carry out these tests. The emulsified diesel fuel consisted of about 80% (mass basis) of conventional ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel and fixed water content.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance and Emissions from Dual Fuelled Engine with In-Cylinder Injected Diesel Fuels and In-Port Injected Bioethanol

2009-06-15
2009-01-1853
Biofuels development and specification are currently driven by the engine (mainly gasoline- and diesel-type) technology, existing fossil fuel specification and availability of feedstock. The ability to use biofuels with conventional fuels without jeopardising the standard fuel specifications is a very effective means for the implementation of these fuels. In this work the effect of dual fuelling with in-cylinder injected ULSD fuel or synthetic second generation biofuels (a Gas-To-Liquid GTL fuel as a surrogate of these biofuels as its composition, specifications and production process are very similar to second generation biofuels) and with inlet port injected bioethanol on the engine performance and emissions were investigated. The introduction of anhydrous bioethanol improved the NOx and smoke emissions, but increased total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Temperature on Performance and Emissions of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Operating with Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME)

2009-06-15
2009-01-1896
The paper presents analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a common rail diesel engine operating with RME, with and without EGR. In both cases, the RME fuel was pre-heated in a heat exchanger to control its temperature before being pumped to the common rail. The studied parameters include the in-cylinder pressure history, rate of heat release, mass fraction burned, and exhaust emissions. The results show that when the fuel temperature increases and the engine is operated without EGR, the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) decreases, engine efficiency increases and NOx emission slightly decreases. However, when EGR is used while fuel temperature is increased, the bsfc and engine efficiency is independent of fuel temperature while NOx slightly increases.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0209
Particulate Emissions from Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion are routinely assumed to be negligible. It is shown here that this is not the case when HCCI combustion is implemented in a direct injection gasoline engine. The conditions needed to sustain HCCI operation were realized using the negative valve overlap method for trapping high levels of residual exhaust gases in the cylinder. Measurements of emitted particle number concentration and electrical mobility diameter were made with a Cambustion DMS500 over the HCCI operating range possible with this hardware. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were also measured. These data are presented and compared with similar measurements made under conventional spark ignition (SI) operation in the same engine. Under both SI and HCCI operation, a significant accumulation mode was detected with particle equivalent diameters between 80 and 100 nm.
Technical Paper

GDI Engine Performance and Emissions with Reformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (REGR)

2013-04-08
2013-01-0537
Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming has potential to be used for on-board generation of hydrogen rich gas, reformate, and to act as an energy recovery system allowing the capture of waste exhaust heat. High exhaust gas temperature drives endothermic reforming reactions that convert hydrocarbon fuel into gaseous fuel when combined with exhaust gas over a catalyst - the result is an increase in overall fuel energy that is proportional to waste energy capture. The paper demonstrates how the combustion of reformate in a direct injection gasoline (GDI) engine via Reformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (REGR) can be beneficial to engine performance and emissions. Bottled reformate was inducted into a single cylinder GDI engine at a range of engine loads to compare REGR to conventional EGR. The reformate composition was selected to approximate reformate produced by exhaust gas fuel reforming at typical gasoline engine exhaust temperatures.
Technical Paper

Activity of Prototype Catalysts on Exhaust Emissions from Biodiesel Fuelled Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2514
A prototype catalyst has been developed and integrated within the aftertreatment exhaust system to control the HC, CO, PM and NOx emissions from diesel exhaust gas. The catalyst activity in removing HC and nano-particles was examined with exhaust gas from a diesel engine operating on biodiesel - Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME). The tests were carried out at steady-state conditions for short periods of time, thus catalyst tolerance to sulphur was not examined. The prototype catalyst reduced the amount of hydrocarbons (HC) and the total PM. The quantity of particulate with electrical mobility diameter in nucleation mode size < 10nm, was significantly reduced over the catalyst. Moreover, it was observed that the use of EGR (20% vol.) for the biodiesel fuelled engine significantly increases the particle concentration in the accumulation mode with simultaneous reduction in the particle concentration in the nuclei mode.
Technical Paper

Research of the Atkinson Cycle in the Spark Ignition Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0390
In the automotive industry, engine downsizing has been widely accepted as an enabler to improving the fuel economy and reducing the CO₂ emissions. The Atkinson cycle is one of the key technologies. In this paper, the Atkinson cycle with different expansion ratios are compared and analyzed. The investigation is compared with the benchmark whose expansion and compression ratio are identical. The aim is to understand the inherent characteristics of the over-expansion and its effect on the engine performance and emissions. The simulation results show that, the Atkinson cycle produces higher efficiency due to over-expansion. The Atkinson cycle has higher internal EGR compared with the benchmark at equivalent conditions, which contributes to lower the NOx and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a PPCI Engine Fuelled with Dieseline

2012-04-16
2012-01-1138
In this paper blends of diesel and gasoline (dieseline) fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) combustion and the comparison to conventional diesel combustion is investigated. The tests are carried out using a light duty four cylinder Euro IV diesel engine. The engine condition is maintained at 1800 rpm, 52 Nm (equivalent IMEP around 4.3 bar). Different injection timings and different amounts of EGR are used to achieve the PPCI combustion. The results show that compared to the conventional diesel combustion, the smoke and NOx emissions can be reduced by more than 95% simultaneously with dieseline fuelled PPCI combustion. The particle number total concentration can be reduced by 90% as well as the mean diameter (from 54 nm for conventional diesel to 16 nm for G50 fuelled PPCI). The penalty is a slightly increased noise level and lower indicated efficiency, which is decreased from 40% to 38.5%.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Wear Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes Using Nonlinear Identification

2014-04-01
2014-01-0947
Aluminum metal matrix composites reinforced with particulates have attracted much attention in the automotive industry, due to their improved wear resistance in comparison to aluminum alloys, in recent years. The wear behavior is the critical factor influencing the product life and performance in engineering components. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the most promising candidates of reinforcements used to improve mechanical strength such as wear in metal matrix composites (MMCs). However, in industrial applications, wear tests are relatively expensive and prolonged. As a result, for several years, research has been increasingly concentrated on development of wear prediction models. In this study, prediction of wear behavior of aluminum (Al) matrix (MMCs) reinforced with different amounts (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) of CNTs was investigated. A nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) model structure was chosen for the modeling.
Technical Paper

Investigating Vehicle Behavior on a Sloped Terrain Surface

2014-04-01
2014-01-0857
Sloped medians provide a run-off area for errant vehicles so that they can be safely stopped off-road with or without barriers placed in the sloped median. However, in order to optimize the design of sloped medians and the containment barriers, it is essential to accurately model the behavior of vehicles on such sloped terrain surfaces. In this study, models of a vehicle fleet comprising a small sedan and a pickup truck and sloped terrain surface are developed in CarSim™ to simulate errant vehicle behavior on sloped median. Full-scale crash tests were conducted using the vehicle fleet driven across a 9.754 meters wide median with a 6:1 slope at speeds ranging from 30 to 70 km/h. Measured data such as the lateral accelerations of the vehicle as well as chassis rotations (roll and pitch) were synchronized with the vehicle motion obtained from the video data.
Technical Paper

Improving Cold Start and Transient Performance of Automotive Diesel Engine at Low Ambient Temperatures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0826
Ambient temperature has significant impact on engine start ability and cold start emissions from diesel engines. These cold start emissions are accounted for substantial amount of the overall regulatory driving cycle emissions like NEDC or FTP. It is likely to implement the low temperature emissions tests for diesel vehicles, which is currently applicable only for gasoline vehicles. This paper investigates the potential of the intake heating strategy on reducing the driving cycle emissions from the latest generation of turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engines at low ambient temperature conditions. For this investigation an air heater was installed upstream of the intake manifold and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) tests were conducted at -7°C ambient temperature conditions for the different intake air temperatures. Intake air heating reduced the cranking time and improved the fuel economy at low ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Thermally Efficient DOC Configuration to Improve CO and THC Conversion Efficiency

2013-04-08
2013-01-1582
The purpose of this study is to improve the carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) conversion efficiency of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) by enhancing the monolith thermal behaviour through modification of the substrate cell density and wall thickness. The optimisation is based on catalyst properties (light off performance, conversion efficiency, pressure drop and mechanical durability). These properties were first estimated using theoretical equations derived from literature in order to select commercially available substrates for further modelling studies. The thermal behaviour and conversion efficiency of the selected catalysts under diesel exhaust gas conditions were numerically studied using data from an EU5 diesel engine operating a New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). This simulation was carried out on a commercial exhaust aftertreatment modelling program, AXISUITE. The predictions were compared to a reference coated 400/4 catalyst.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Heavy Naphtha for High Efficiency and Low Emissions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2678
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with heavy naphtha is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from 0.5MPa to 0.9MPa. Commercial diesel is also tested with the single injection for reference. The combustion and emissions characteristics of the heavy naphtha are investigated by sweeping the first (−200 ∼ −20 deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−5 ∼ 15 deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 50/50. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the naphtha MPCI can reduce NOx, soot emissions and particle number simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency. A low pressure rise rate can be achieved due to the two-stage combustion character of the MPCI mode but with the penalty of high HC and CO emissions, especially at 0.5MPa IMEP.
Technical Paper

Impact of Cold Ambient Conditions on Cold Start and Idle Emissions from Diesel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2715
The cold start performance of a diesel engine has been receiving more attention as the European Commission emission regulations directed to include cold start emissions in the legislative emission driving cycles. The cold start performance of diesel engines is influenced by the ambient temperature conditions, engine design, fuel, lubricant and engine operating conditions. The present research work investigates the effect of cold ambient conditions on the diesel engine's performance and the exhaust emission (gaseous and particulate emissions) characteristics during the cold start and followed by idle. The engine startability and idling tests were carried out on the latest generation of diesel engine in a cold cell at various ambient temperatures ranging between +20°C and −20°C. Higher fuel consumption and peak speed were observed at very cold ambient compared to those at normal ambient during the cold start.
Technical Paper

A Study of Methodology for the Investigation of Engine Transient Performance

2014-10-13
2014-01-2714
Automotive engines especially turbocharged diesel engines produce higher level of emissions during transient operation than in steady state. In order to improve understanding of the engine transients and develop advanced technologies to reduce the transient emissions, the engine researchers require accurate data acquisition and appropriate post-processing techniques which are capable of dealing with noise and synchronization issues. Four alternative automated methods namely FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), low-pass, linear and zero-phase filters were implemented on in-cylinder pressure. The data of each individual cycle was compared and analyzed for the suitability of combustion diagnostic. FFT filtering was the best suited method since it eliminated most pressure fluctuation and provided smooth rate of heat release profiles for each cycle.
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