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Technical Paper

UEGO-based Exhaust Gas Mass Flow Rate Measurement

2012-09-10
2012-01-1627
New and upcoming exhaust emissions regulations and fuel consumption reduction requirements are forcing the development of innovative and particularly complex intake-engine-exhaust layouts. Especially in the case of Compression Ignition (CI) engines, the HC-CO-NOx-PM after-treatment system is becoming extremely expensive and sophisticated, and the necessity to further reduce engine-out emission levels, without significantly penalizing fuel consumption figures, may lead to the adoption of intricate and challenging intake-exhaust systems configurations. The adoption of both long- and short-route Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems is one example of such situation, and the need to precisely measure (or estimate) mass flow rates in the various elements of the gas exchange circuit is one of the consequences.
Technical Paper

Ethanol to Gasoline Ratio Detection via Time-Frequency Analysis of Engine Acoustic Emission

2012-09-10
2012-01-1629
In order to reduce both polluting emissions and fuel costs, many countries allow mixing ethanol to gasoline either in fixed percentages or in variable percentages. The resulting fuel is labeled E10 or E22, where the number specifies the ethanol percentage. This operation significantly changes way the stoichiometric value, which is the air-to-fuel mass ratio theoretically needed to completely burn the mixture. Ethanol concentration must be correctly estimated by the Engine Management System to optimally control exhaust emissions, fuel economy and engine performance. In fact, correct fuel quality recognition allows estimating the actual stoichiometric value, thus allowing the catalyst system to operate at maximum efficiency in any engine working point. Moreover, also other essential engine control functions should be adapted in real time by taking into account the quality of the fuel that is being used.
Journal Article

Innovative Techniques for On-Board Exhaust Gas Dynamic Properties Measurement

2013-04-08
2013-01-0305
The purpose of this paper is to present some innovative techniques developed for an unconventional utilization of currently standard exhaust sensors, such as HEGO, UEGO, and NOx probes. In order to comply with always more stringent legislation about pollutant emissions, intake-exhaust systems are becoming even more complex and sophisticated, especially for CI engines, often including one or two UEGO sensors and a NOx sensor, and potentially equipped with both short-route and long-route EGR. Within this context, the effort to carry out novel methods for measuring the main exhaust gas dynamic properties exploiting sensors installed for different purposes, could be useful both for control applications, such as EGR rates estimation, or cost reduction, minimizing the on-board devices number. In this work, a gray-box model for measuring the gas mass flow rate, based on standard NOx sensor operating parameters of its heating circuit, is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Approach for Non-Intrusive Closed-Loop Heat Release Estimation in Diesel Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0314
Over the past years, policies affecting pollutant emissions control for Diesel engines have become more and more restrictive. In order to meet such requirements, innovative combustion control methods have currently become a key factor. Several studies demonstrate that the desired pollutant emission reduction can be achieved through a closed-loop combustion control based on in-cylinder pressure processing. Nevertheless, despite the fact that cylinder pressure sensors for on-board application have been recently developed, large scale deployment of such systems is currently hindered by unsatisfactory long term reliability and high costs. Whereas both the accuracy and the reliability of pressure measurement could be improved in future years, pressure sensors would still be a considerable part of the cost of the entire engine management system.
Journal Article

Development and Implementation of Hardware in the Loop Simulation for Dual Clutch Transmission Control Units

2013-04-08
2013-01-0816
A control oriented model of a Dual Clutch Transmission was developed for real time Hardware In the Loop (HIL) applications. The model is an innovative attempt to reproduce the fast dynamics of the actuation system maintaining a step size large enough for real time applications. The model comprehends a detailed physical description of hydraulic circuit, clutches, synchronizers and gears, and simplified vehicle and internal combustion engine sub-models; a stable real time simulation is achieved with a simplification of the model without losing physical validity. After an offline validation, the model was implemented in a HIL system and connected to the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) via two input-output boards, and to a load plate which comprehends all the actuators.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Homogeneous Relaxation Model and a Rayleigh Plesset Cavitation Model in Predicting the Cavitating Flow Through Various Injector Hole Shapes

2013-04-08
2013-01-1613
Two cavitation models are evaluated based on their ability to reproduce the development of cavitation experimentally observed by Winklhofer et al. inside injector hole geometries. The first is Singhal's model, derived from a reduced form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, implemented in the commercial CFD package Fluent. The second is the homogeneous relaxation model, a continuum model that uses an empirical timescale to reproduce a range of vaporization mechanisms, implemented in the OpenFOAM framework. Previous work by Neroorkar et al. validated the homogeneous relaxation model for one of the nozzle geometries tested by Winklhofer et al. The present work extends that validation to all the three geometries considered by Winklhofer et al in order to compare the models' ability to capture the effects of nozzle convergence.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Influence of Intake Duct Geometrical Parameters on the Tumble Motion Generation in a Small Gasoline Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0095
During the last years the deep re-examination of the engine design for lowering engine emissions involved two-wheel vehicles too. The IC engine overall efficiency plays a fundamental role in determining final raw emissions. From this point of view, the optimization of the in-cylinder flow organization is mandatory. In detail, in SI engines the generation of a coherent tumble vortex having dimensions comparable to the engine stroke could be of primary importance to extend the engines' ignition limits toward the field of the dilute/lean mixtures. For motorbike and motor scooter applications, the optimization of the tumble generation is considered an effective way to improve the combustion system efficiency and to lower emissions, considering also that the two-wheels layout represents an obstacle in adopting the advanced post-treatment concepts designed for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Analysis of the Influence of Some Geometrical Engine Parameters on Small PFI Engine Performances - The Effects on Tumble Motion and Mean Turbulent Intensity Distribution

2012-10-23
2012-32-0096
In scooter/motorbike engines coherent and stable tumble motion generation is still considered an effective mean in order to both reduce engine emissions and promote higher levels of combustion efficiency. The scientific research also assessed that squish motion is an effective mean for speeding up the combustion in a combustion process already fast. In a previous technical paper the authors demonstrated that for an engine having a high C/D ratio the squish motion is not only not necessary but also detrimental for the stability of the tumble motion itself, because there is a strong interaction between these two motions with the consequent formation of secondary vortices, which in turn penalizes the tumble breakdown and the turbulent kinetic energy production.
Technical Paper

Rapid Prototyping as a Tool to Support Wind Tunnel Testing of Unconventional Unmanned Airships

2013-09-17
2013-01-2193
Scaled models are often used to check the aerodynamic performance of full scale aircraft and airship concepts, which have gone through a conceptual and preliminary design process. Results from these tests can be quite useful to improve the design of unconventional airships whose aerodynamics might be quite different from classical configurations. Once the airship geometry has been defined, testing is required to acquire aerodynamic data necessary to implement the mathematical model of the airship needed by the flight control system to develop full autonomous capabilities. Rapid prototyping has the great potential of playing a beneficial role in unconventional autonomous airship design similarly to the success obtained in the design process of conventional aircrafts.
Technical Paper

Design, Optimization, Performances and Flight Operation of an All Composite Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

2013-09-17
2013-01-2192
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide the ability to perform a variety of experimental tests of systems and unproven research technologies, including new autopilot systems and obstacle avoidance capabilities, without risking the lives of human pilots. This paper describes the activities of design, optimization, and flight operations of a UAV conceived at Clarkson University (USA) and equipped to perform wind speed measurements to support wind farmsite planning. The UAV design has been assisted and validated by the use of an automatic virtual environment for the assisted design of civil UAVs. This tool can be used as a “computing machine” for civil UAVs. The operator inputs the mission profile and other generic parameters and data about performance, aerodynamics, and weight breakdown are extracted. A mathematical model of the UAV for flight simulation and its dynamic computations, along with automatic drawing is also produced.
Technical Paper

A Mesh Based Approach for Unconventional Unmanned Airship Added Masses Computation

2013-09-17
2013-01-2191
Added masses computation is a crucial aspect to be considered when the density of a body moving in a fluid is comparable to the density of the fluid displaced: added mass can be defined as the inertia added to a system because an accelerating or decelerating body displaces some volume of neighboring fluid as it moves through it. The motion of vehicles like airships and ships can be addressed only by keeping into account the effect of added masses, while in case of aircrafts and helicopters this contribution is usually neglected. Lighter Than Air flight simulation, unmanned airships flight control system, airships flight dynamics are typical applications in which added masses are fundamental to achieve an effective and realistic modeling. A panel based method using the mesh of an airship external shape is developed to account for the added massed.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Software Environment for UAV Missions Support

2013-09-17
2013-01-2189
This paper describes the design and development of a virtual environment conceived to support flight operations of an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) used for wind mapping in the proximity of existing or planned wind farms. The virtual environment can be used in pre-flight briefings aiming to define a trajectory from a list of waypoints, to change and eventually re-plan the mission in case of intersection with no fly zones, to simulate the mission, and to preview images/videos taken from the UAV on-board cameras. During flight, the tool can be used to compute the wind speed along the trajectory by analyzing the data streaming from the UAV. The integration of Augmented Reality (AR) techniques in the flight environment provides assistance in remotely piloted landings, and allows visualizing flight and environmental information that are critical to the mission.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Evaluation of IMEP and ROHR-related Parameters

2007-09-16
2007-24-0068
Combustion control is one of the key factors to obtain better performance and lower pollutants emissions, for diesel, spark ignition and HCCI engines. This paper describes a real-time indicating system based on commercially available hardware and software, which allows the real-time evaluation of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) and Rate of Heat Release (ROHR) related parameters, such as 50%MFB, cylinder by cylinder, cycle by cycle. This kind of information is crucial for engine mapping and can be very important also for rapid control prototyping purposes. The project objective is to create a system able to process in-cylinder pressure signals in the angular domain without the need for crankshaft encoder, for example using as angular reference the signal coming from a standard equipment sensor wheel. This feature can be useful both for test bench and on-board tests.
Technical Paper

Virtual GDI Engine as a Tool for Model-Based Calibration

2012-09-10
2012-01-1679
Recent and forthcoming fuel consumption reduction requirements and exhaust emissions regulations are forcing the development of innovative and particularly complex intake-engine-exhaust layouts. In the case of Spark Ignition (SI) engines, the necessity to further reduce fuel consumption has led to the adoption of direct injection systems, displacement downsizing, and challenging intake-exhaust configurations, such as multi-stage turbocharging or turbo-assist solutions. Further, the most recent turbo-GDI engines may be equipped with other fuel-reduction oriented technologies, such as Variable Valve Timing (VVT) systems, devices for actively control tumble/swirl in-cylinder flow components, and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems. Such degree of flexibility has a main drawback: the exponentially increasing effort required for optimal engine control calibration.
Technical Paper

Superheated Sprays of Alternative Fuels for Direct Injection Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1261
Alternative and oxygenated fuels are nowadays being studied in order to increase engine efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions and also to limit the automotive industry's economical dependency from crude oil. These fuels are considered more ecological compared to hydrocarbons because they are obtained using renewable sources. Fuels like anhydrous/hydrous ethanol, methanol or alcohol/gasoline blends which are injected in liquid form must vaporize quickly, especially in direct injection engines, therefore their volatility is a very important factor and strongly depends on thermodynamic conditions and chemical properties. When a multi-component fuel blend is injected into a low pressure environment below its saturation pressure, a rapid boiling of the most volatile component triggers a thermodynamic atomization mechanism. These kinds of sprays show smaller droplets and lower penetration compared to mechanical break up.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Acoustic Emission Analysis for Combustion Control

2012-04-16
2012-01-1338
Future regulations on pollutant emissions will impose a drastic cut on Diesel engines out-emissions. For this reason, the development of closed-loop combustion control algorithms has become a key factor in modern Diesel engine management systems. Diesel engines out-emissions can be reduced through a highly premixed combustion portion in low and medium load operating conditions. Since low-temperature premixed combustions are very sensitive to in-cylinder thermal conditions, the first aspect to be considered in newly developed Diesel engine control strategies is the control of the center of combustion. In order to achieve the target center of combustion, conventional combustion control algorithms correct the measured value varying main injection timing. A further reduction in engine-out emissions can be obtained applying an appropriate injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Primary Breakup Model for Turbulent Liquid Jet Based on Ligament Evolution

2012-04-16
2012-01-0460
The overall performance of direct injection (DI) engines is strictly correlated to the fuel liquid spray evolution into the cylinder volume. More in detail, spray behavior can drastically affect mixture formation, combustion efficiency, cycle to cycle engine variability, soot amount, and lubricant contamination. For this reason, in DI engine an accurate numerical reproduction of the spray behavior is mandatory. In order to improve the spray simulation accuracy, authors defined a new atomization model based on experimental evidences about ligament and droplet formations from a turbulent liquid jet surface. The proposed atomization approach was based on the assumption that the droplet stripping in a turbulent liquid jet is mainly linked to ligament formations. Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulation method was adopted for the continuum phase while the liquid discrete phase is managed by Lagrangian approach.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Numerical Methodology for Large Eddy Simulation of ICE Wall Bounded Non-Reactive Flows

2007-10-29
2007-01-4145
The increasing of the overall engine performance requires the investigation of the unsteady engine phenomena affecting intake air flow and the air-fuel mixing process. The “standard” RANS methodology often doesn't allow one to achieve a qualitative and quantitative accurate prediction of these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to show the potential and the limits of LES numerical technique in the simulation of actual IC engine flows and to assess the influence of some basic parameters on the LES simulation results. The paper introduces the use of a merit parameter suggested by Pope for evaluating the quality of the LES solution. The CFD code used is Fluent v6.2 and two basic test cases have been simulated. The first one is the flow over a backward facing step in order to perform a preliminary parametric numerical analysis. A one-equation dynamic subgrid-scales turbulence model is used.
Technical Paper

Setup of a 1D Model for Simulating Dynamic Behaviour of External Gear Pumps

2007-10-30
2007-01-4228
External gear pumps are widely used in many different applications because of their relatively low costs and high performances, especially in terms of volumetric and mechanical efficiency. The main weaknesses of external gear pumps can be summarized as follows: 1 Sudden increase or decrease of pressure inside volumes between teeth, which could lead respectively to noise emissions and to cavitation onset; 2 Necessity of limiting power losses and increasing volumetric efficiency, obtainable by reducing leakage flows between components; 3 Need of maintaining an ad-hoc minimum lubrication film thickness. In recent years many efforts, in terms of mathematical models and experimental tests, were done in order to limit energy losses and noise emissions. With the aim of deeply studying dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps and addressing their design, a 1D model was developed by means AMESim® code.
Technical Paper

Knock Indexes Thresholds Setting Methodology

2007-04-16
2007-01-1508
Gasoline engines can be affected, under certain operating conditions, by knocking combustions: this is still a factor limiting engines performance, and an accurate control is required for those engines working near the knock limit, in order to avoid permanent damage. HCCI engines also need a sophisticated combustion monitoring methodology, especially for high BMEP operating conditions. Many methodologies can be found in the literature to recognize potentially dangerous combustions, based on the analysis of the in-cylinder pressure signal. The signal is usually filtered and processed, in order to obtain an index that is then be compared to the knock threshold level. Thresholds setting is a challenging task, since usually indexes are not intrinsically related to the damages caused by abnormal combustions events. Furthermore, their values strongly depend on the engine operating conditions (speed and load), and thresholds must therefore vary with respect to speed and load.
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