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Technical Paper

Novel Methods for Characterizing the Mechanical Durability of Automobile Paint Systems

This paper presents two new methods to quantitatively evaluate the mechanical durability of multi-layered automotive paint systems. The first examines the resistance of the paint system to particle impacts and involves the impact of hard particles against the painted surface, under controlled conditions. The second test examines the resistance of the clearcoat layer in the paint system to surface abrasion, or mar. The test uses a steel sphere which is rotated against the paint surface in the presence of a slurry of fine abrasive particles. These two techniques have been successfully applied to a set of commercial automobile paints, and were found to discriminate well between them and give reproducible, quantitative data. The effects of the bake conditions on both the erosion and abrasion resistance of a full paint system and the abrasion resistance of a range of commercial clearcoats are examined in detail.
Technical Paper

The Fast FID as a Velocimeter for Flow Measurements in an Automotive Catalyst

The gas velocity through an automotive catalyst has been determined by measuring the time of flight of a pulse of propane injected at the inlet plane of the catalyst. The arrival time at the exit plane was detected by a fast flame ionization detector. By synchronizing and delaying the injection of propane with respect to the engine crankshaft position, the fluctuations of the exhaust gas velocity during the engine cycle were investigated. A number of tests at different engine load and speed points were carried out. The results show a complex velocity/time characteristic, including flow reversals. The technique is shown to be a viable option for flow measurement in this harsh environment.
Technical Paper

Premixed Turbulent Combustion Flowfield Measurements Using PIV and LST and Their Application to Flamelet Modelling of Engine Combustion

Flamelet modelling of premixed turbulent combustion can be applied to spark-ignition engine combustion. To address and validate several modelling criteria, two measurement techniques are used in a burner flame to study the interaction between turbulent flowfields and combustion for subsequent application to engine combustion. Particle Image Velocimetry and Light Sheet Tomography are used together to measure conditional velocities simultaneously in reactant and product mixtures. Correlations of velocity and reaction scalar fluctuations indicate that counter-gradient turbulent diffusion must be accounted for when modelling this flowfield. Comparisons of spatial averaging of instantaneous and ensemble-averaged data are made and the application of similar techniques to engine combustion is discussed.
Technical Paper

A Catalytic Oxidation Sensor for the On Board Detection of Misfire and Catalyst Efficiency

This paper describes a novel catalytic oxidation sensor which represents an attempt to realise a practical sensor for on vehicle detection of catalyst efficiency and misfire. Via experimental and modelling approaches, promising characteristics are established, which could mean that an application to the on-vehicle detection of catalyst efficiency and misfire is feasible.
Technical Paper

A Linear Catalyst Temperature Sensor for Exhaust Gas Ignition (EGI) and On Board Diagnostics of Misfire and Catalyst Efficiency

Afterburning of a rich exhaust/air mixture ahead of the catalyst has been shown in earlier papers to offer an effective means of achieving catalyst light-off in very short times. Protection of the catalyst from overheating is an important aspect of systems using EGI, and on board diagnostics will be required to check for proper function of EGI. In this paper, some options for these requirements are discussed, using a high temperature linear thermistor.
Technical Paper

A New Technique for Measuring HC Concentration in Real Time, in a Running Engine

Using a novel, high frequency response FID unit, hydrocarbon measurements in the spark plug gap of a firing gasoline engine have been made. These measurements have been correlated with the pressure development, and a significant correlation was found. The method described can be used on any engine fitted with a modified sparking plug.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency of Autonomous Car Powertrain

This paper investigates the energy efficiency and emissions benefits possible with connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs). Such benefits could be instrumental in decarbonising the transport sector. The impact of CAV technology on operation, usage and specification of vehicles for optimised energy efficiency is considered. Energy consumption reductions of 55% – 66% are identified for a fully autonomous road transport system versus the present. 46% is possible for a CAV on today’s roads. Smoothing effects and reduced stoppage in the drive cycle achieve a 31% reduction in travel time if speed limits are not reduced. CAV powertrain optimised for different scenarios requires just 10 kW – 40 kW maximum power whilst the vehicle mass is reduced by up to 40% relative to current cars. Urban-optimised powertrain, with only 10 kW – 15 kW maximum power, allows energy consumption reductions of over 71%.
Technical Paper

Study of Cycle-By-Cycle Air-to-Fuel Ratio Determined from the Exhaust Gas Composition and a Novel Fast Response Device Based on a Wide Band Lambda Sensor

This paper describes cyclic Air/Fuel ratio (AFR) measurements carried out with a novel device (fUEGO) based on a production Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen sensor, but modified to give an improved frequency response. The results are compared to AFR calculated from a fast CO/CO2 analyser and a fast response flame ionization detector (FID). The direct comparison of the two different methods for determining the cyclic AFR reveals that the electrochemical device is in reasonable agreement with the more complex carbon balance method and can provide reliable cyclic AFR measurements with a reduced requirement for equipment and data post processing. The fUEGO however is sensitive to elevated levels of uHC's (unburned hydrocarbons) during misfires or partial burns and readings during such situations usually show deviations compared to the carbon balance method.
Technical Paper

Study of Steady State and Transient EGR Behaviour of a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

It is well known that accurate EGR control is paramount to controlling engine out emissions during steady state and transient operation of a diesel engine. The direct measurement of EGR is however non-trivial and especially difficult in engines with no external EGR control where the intake manifold CO2 levels can be measured more readily. This work studies the EGR behaviour in a medium duty diesel engine with a passive EGR rebreathing strategy for steady state and transient operation. High speed (response time ∼1ms) in-cylinder sampling using modified GDI valves is coupled with high frequency response analysers to measure the cyclic in-cylinder CO2, from which the EGR rate is deduced. It was found that controlling the EGR using the passive rebreathing strategy during certain combined speed and load transients is challenging, causing high smoke and NO emissions.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Engine Dynamics Model Based In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation

The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Control Using Dual-Fuel Approach: Experimental and Modeling Investigations

A dual-fuel approach to control combustion in HCCI engine is investigated in this work. This approach involves controlling the combustion heat release rate by adjusting fuel reactivity according to the conditions inside the cylinder. Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder research engine fueled with different ratios of primary reference fuels and operated at different speed and load conditions, and results from these experiments showed a clear potential for the approach to expand the HCCI engine operation window. Such potential is further demonstrated dynamically using an optimized stochastic reactor model integrated within a MATLAB code that simulates HCCI multi-cycle operation and closed-loop control of fuel ratio. The model, which utilizes a reduced PRF mechanism, was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm and then compared to a wide range of engine data.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Injection Strategy, Combustion Characteristics and Emissions for IC Engines Using Advanced Simulation Technologies

Regulations concerning emissions from diesel- and gasoline-fuelled engines are becoming ever more stringent in all parts of the world. Historically these targets have been achieved through on-going technological development using an iterative process of computational modeling, design, build and test. Computational modeling is certainly the cheapest aspect within this process and if employed to meet more of the challenges associated with development, has the potential to significantly reduce developmental cost and time scales. Furthermore, computational models are an effective means to retain and apply often highly focused technical knowledge of complex processes within development teams thus delivering greater insight into processes.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of a Kinetics-Based HCCI Model Using Engine Data

A multi-objective optimization scheme based on stochastic global search is developed and used to examine the performance of an HCCI model containing a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism, and to study interrelations among different model responses. A stochastic reactor model of an HCCI engine is used in this study, and dedicated HCCI engine experiments are performed to provide reference for the optimization. The results revealed conflicting trends among objectives normally used in mechanism optimization, such as ignition delay and engine cylinder pressure history, indicating that a single best combination of optimization variables for these objectives did not exist. This implies that optimizing chemical mechanisms to maintain universal predictivity across such conflicting responses will only yield a predictivity tradeoff. It also implies that careful selection of optimization objectives increases the likelihood of better predictivity for these objectives.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Effects on HCCI Operating Range: Experiments with Primary Reference Fuels

Results from a large set of HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine fueled with different mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane are presented and discussed in this paper. The experiments are designed to scrutinize fuel reactivity effects on the operating range of an HCCI engine. The fuel effects on upper and lower operating limits are measured respectively by the maximum pressure rise rate inside the cylinder and the stability of engine operation as determined by cycle-to-cycle variations in IMEP. Another set of experiments that examine the intake air heating effects on HCCI engine performance, exhaust emissions and operating envelopes is also presented. The effects of fuel reactivity and intake air heating on the HCCI ranges are demonstrated by constructing the operating envelopes for the different test fuels and intake temperatures.
Technical Paper

Application of Fast Oxygen Sensors for Investigations into Air-Path Dynamics and EGR Distribution in a Diesel Engine

The control of NOX emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is of widespread application. However, despite dramatic improvements in all aspects of engine control, the subtle mixing processes that determine the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution of the recirculated gas often results in a mal-distribution that is still an issue for the engine designer and calibrator. In this paper we demonstrate the application of a relatively straightforward technique for the measurement of the absolute and relative dilution quantity in both steady state and transient operation. This was achieved by the use of oxygen sensors based on standard UEGO (universal exhaust gas oxygen) sensors but packaged so as to give good frequency response (∼ 10 ms time constant) and be completely insensitivity to the sample pressure and temperature. Measurements can be made at almost any location of interest, for example exhaust and inlet manifolds as well as EGR path(s), with virtually no flow disturbance.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Gas Flow Field within a Diesel Particulate Filter Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

In recent years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be an attractive method for fluid flow visualization. In this work, we show how MRI velocimetry techniques can be used to non-invasively investigate and visualize the hydrodynamics of exhaust gas in a diesel particulate filter (DPF), both when clean and after loading with diesel engine exhaust particulate matter. The measurements have been used to directly measure the gas flow in the inlet and outlet channels of the DPF, both axial profiles along the length and profiles across the channel diameter. Further, from this information we show that it is possible to indirectly ascertain the superficial wall-flow gas velocity and the soot loading profiles along the filter channel length.
Technical Paper

Fast Response CO2 Sensor for Automotive Exhaust Gas Analysis

A fast response sensor for measuring carbon dioxide concentration has been developed for laboratory research and tested on a spark ignition engine. The sensor uses the well known infra-red absorption technique with a miniaturized detection system and short capillary sampling tubes, giving a time constant of approximately 5 milliseconds; this is sufficiently fast to observe changes in CO2 levels on a cycle-by-cycle basis under normal operating conditions. The sensor is easily located in the exhaust system and operates continuously. The sensor was tested on a standard production four cylinder spark-ignition engine to observe changes in CO2 concentration in exhaust gas under steady state and transient operating conditions. The processed sensor signal was compared to a standard air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) sensor in the exhaust stream and the results are presented here. The high frequency response CO2 measurements give new insights into both engine and catalyst transient operation.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Particulate Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Experiments were performed to measure the average and time-resolved particle number emissions and number-weighted particle size distributions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 13 - 90 km/hr. Particle number emissions were measured using a TSI 3020 condensation nucleus counter, and size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Average polydisperse number concentration was found to increase from 1.1 × 108 particles/cm3 at 13 km/hr to 2.8 × 108 particles/cm3 at 70 km/hr. Under a closed-loop, stoichiometric homogeneous charge operating mode at 90 km/hr, number emissions fell to 9.3 × 107 particles/cm3 (at all other operating conditions, the engine was in a lean stratified charge operating mode).
Technical Paper

Highly Homogeneous Compression Ignition in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Biodiesel

Highly homogeneous compression ignition is difficult to achieve in a direct injection diesel engine. The difficulty of achieving adequate fuel vaporization and the problems of fuel spray wall impingement are the main factors. Limitation of the maximum operating load results from high rates of pressure rise that occur in this combustion regime. The levels of HC and CO emissions are raised substantially when compared with conventional combustion and remain a significant emission factor. In this study, two methods of achieving highly homogeneous combustion in a direct injection diesel engine were investigated, Nissan MK type and early injection. The effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, EGR level, EGR cooler efficiency and compression ratio were examined using a conventional 4 cylinder 2.0L common rail diesel engine with 18.4:1 and 14.4:1 compression ratios.
Technical Paper

A Fourier Analysis Based Synthetic Method for In-cylinder Pressure Estimation

The cylinder pressure signal, as an instantaneous and direct measure of the engine operation, contains valuable information for closed loop engine control and offers very useful engine monitoring and control capabilities. The estimation technique for cylinder pressure has been investigated for many years. Based on the Frequency Analysis Method, a synthetic estimation method is proposed in this paper to estimate pressure. Methods that are successful in obtaining a more accurate estimated cylinder pressure over a wider range of crankshaft angle are reported. Quantitative results obtained from application of the method are also given.