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Technical Paper

A Dynamometer for Automobile Brake Squeal Study

2001-04-30
2001-01-1599
Automobile brake squeal has been experimentally studied in many ways over the past 65 years. A large body of published research and a substantial amount of unpublished work have attempted to experimentally define the variables involved with and describe the system dynamics initiating the friction-induced self-excited vibration. Much of this work has centered on pin on disk type test rigs used to characterize the contact mechanics and/or friction laws without considering the brake system influence. This paper describes a dynamometer designed and constructed to study brake squeal on a system level.
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission Through Cylindrical Double-Walled Shells Sandwiching Porous Material

2001-04-30
2001-01-1518
Sound transmission through a cylindrical double-walled shell lined with an elastic porous material is studied. Love's equation is applied to describe the shell motions coupled with acoustic wave equations. An interesting method is developed to simplify the analysis of the wave propagation in the elastic porous material, which reduces the model developed by Bolton et al. [2] based on the Biot's theory [1] to a simple one-dimensional wave propagation model. The results from the simplified model are compared with those from the Bolton's model and measurements. Solutions for the sound transmission through the cylindrical double-walled shell lined with an elastic porous material are obtained for various configurations using the simplified method, and compared with measured results. Advantages and limitations of the simplified analysis method developed are explained from the perspective of practical applications.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Experimental Study of the Mean Flow Effect on the Sound Transmission Through a Cylindrical Shell of an Automobile Muffler

2001-04-30
2001-01-1517
Sound transmission through the sidewall of an automotive muffler has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Three wall structures: a single shell, double shell and porous-cored shell constructions are considered. Transmission losses through the sidewalls were measured using the two microphone method. Experimental results are compared to one another, and to the corresponding theoretical analysis results, which shows that the mean flow effect is not a significant factor in designing the muffler sidewall.
Technical Paper

Inverse Method for Measuring Weld Temperatures during Resistance Spot Welding

2001-03-05
2001-01-0437
A new monitoring system predicts the progression of welding temperature fields during resistance spot welding. The system captures welding voltages and currents to predict contact diameters and simulate temperature fields. The system accurately predicts fusion lines and heat-affected zones. Accuracy holds even for electrode tips used for a few thousand welds of zinc coated steels.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Damping Matrices Identification Method and Its Applications

2001-04-30
2001-01-1407
An experimental method to identify damping characteristics of a dynamic system is reported. The method identifies damping matrices of the equation of motion of the system from measured frequency response functions, each different damping mechanism in a distinct matrix. Related experimental techniques and signal processing issues are discussed. Theoretical validation and error study are conducted by applying the method to a theoretical example. The method is applied experimentally to a thin beam with two different damping characteristics for experimental validation and demonstration of the method. Important advantages of the method over existing methods are explained.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2022
A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

Space Life Support from the Cellular Perspective

2001-07-09
2001-01-2229
Determining the fundamental role of gravity in vital biological systems in space is one of six science and research areas that provides the philosophical underpinning for why NASA exists. The study of cells, tissues, and microorganisms in a spaceflight environment holds the promise of answering multiple intriguing questions about how gravity affects living systems. To enable these studies, specimens must be maintained in an environment similar to that used in a laboratory. Cell culture studies under normal laboratory conditions involve maintaining a highly specialized environment with the necessary temperature, humidity control, nutrient, and gas exchange conditions. These same cell life support conditions must be provided by the International Space Station (ISS) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) in the unique environment of space. The CCU is a perfusion-based system that must function in microgravity, at unit gravity (1g) on earth, and from 0.1g up to 2g aboard the ISS centrifuge rotor.
Technical Paper

A New Design for Automotive Alternators

2000-11-01
2000-01-C084
This paper introduces a new design for alternator systems that provides dramatic increases in peak and average power output from a conventional Lundell alternator, along with substantial improvements in efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate these capability improvements. Additional performance and functionality improvements of particular value for high-voltage (e.g., 42 V) alternators are also demonstrated. Tight load-dump transient suppression can be achieved using this new design and the alternator system can be used to implement jump charging (the charging of the high-voltage system battery from a low-voltage source). Dual-output extensions of the technique (e.g., 42/14 V) are also introduced. The new technology preserves the simplicity and low cost of conventional alternator designs, and can be implemented within the existing manufacturing infrastructure.
Technical Paper

Modeling NO Formation in Spark Ignition Engines with a Layered Adiabatic Core and Combustion Inefficiency Routine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1011
A thermodynamic based cycle simulation which uses a thermal boundary layer, either, a fully mixed or layered adiabatic core, and a crevice combustion inefficiency routine has been used to explore the sensitivity of NO concentration predictions to critical physical modeling assumptions. An experimental database, which included measurements of residual gas fraction, was obtained from a 2.0 liter Nissan engine while firing on propane. A model calibration methodology was developed to ensure accurate predictions of in-cylinder pressure and burned gas temperature. Comparisons with experimental NO data then showed that accounting for temperature stratification during combustion with a layered adiabatic core and including a crevice/combustion inefficiency routine, improved the match of modeling predictions to data, in comparison to a fully mixed adiabatic core.
Technical Paper

Application of Spectral-Based Substructuring Approach to Analyze the Dynamic Interactions of Powertrain Structures

2003-05-05
2003-01-1731
A spectral-based substructuring approach applying linear frequency response functions (FRF) is proposed for improving the accuracy of simulating the dynamics of coupled systems. The method also applies a least square singular value decomposition (SVD) scheme to overcome the inherent computational deficiency in the basic substructuring formulation. The computational problem is caused by the magnification of measurement errors during any one of the matrix inversion calculations required for this method. The primary objective of applying this approach is to examine the possibility of analyzing higher frequency response that is normally not possible using conventional modeling technique such as the direct finite and boundary element, and lumped parameter techniques. In this study, additional concepts are also evaluated to quantify the limitations and range of applicability of the proposed substructuring approach for simulating the vibration response of complex powertrain structures.
Technical Paper

Automotive NVH Research Instrumentation and Infrastructure at UC-SDRL

2003-05-05
2003-01-1689
This paper is intended to describe some of the advances in automotive NVH research and applications based on recent developments in the Structural Dynamics Research Laboratory (SDRL) at the University of Cincinnati. State-of-the-art vibro-acoustic research capabilities and infrastructure ranging from advanced vibration modal analysis and spectral techniques for linear and nonlinear automotive systems to computational tools for structure-borne acoustic noise generation, transmission and synthesis problems are discussed. These systems have been devised with the intent of integrating a versatile set of experimental, computational and analytical approaches in order to be able to investigate a variety of crucial automotive NVH concerns. The materials will be grouped into three separate but closely related sets of applications consisting of (i) powertrain noise and vibration control, (ii) analysis and control vehicle system dynamics, and (iii) NVH and sound quality.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Knock Limit and Viable Operating Range for a Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1092
A method is presented for predicting the viable operating range of homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. A fundamental criterion for predicting HCCI knock is described and used to predict the minimum air/fuel ratio (and hence maximum torque) available from the engine. The lean (misfire) limit is computed using a modification of the multi-zone method of Aceves et al. [1]. Numerical improvements are described which allow even very complex fuel chemistry to be rapidly modeled on a standard PC. The viable operating range for an HCCI engine burning a primary reference fuel (PRF 95) is predicted and compared with literature experimental data. The new ability to accurately predict the operating range for any given HCCI engine/fuel combination should considerably simplify the tasks of designing a robust engine and identifying suitable fuels for HCCI.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

1996-10-01
961955
A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Post-Flame Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Spark Ignition Engines

1997-02-24
970886
About 50-90 percent of the hydrocarbons that escape combustion during flame passage in spark-ignition engine operation are oxidized in the cylinder before leaving the system. The process involves the transport of unreacted fuel from cold walls towards the hotter burned gas regions and subsequent reaction. In order to understand controlling factors in the process, a transient one-dimensional reactive-diffusive model has been formulated for simulating the oxidation processes taking place in the reactive layer between hot burned gases and cold unreacted air/fuel mixture, with initial and boundary conditions provided by the emergence of hydrocarbons from the piston top land crevice. Energy and species conservation equations are solved for the entire process, using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for propane.
Technical Paper

Liquid Fuel Transport Mechanisms into the Cylinder of a Firing Port-Injected SI Engine During Start Up

1997-02-24
970865
The occurrence of liquid fuel in the cylinder of automotive internal combustion engines is believed to be an important source of exhaust hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, especially during the warm-up process following an engine start up. In this study a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) has been used in a transparent flow visualization combustion engine in order to investigate the phenomena which govern the transport of liquid fuel into the cylinder during a simulated engine start up process. Using indolene fuel, the engine was started up from room temperature and run for 90 sec on each start up simulation. The size and velocity of the liquid fuel droplets entering the cylinder were measured as a function of time and crank angle position during these start up processes. The square-piston transparent engine used gave full optical access to the cylinder head region, so that these droplet characteristics could be measured in the immediate vicinity of the intake valve.
Technical Paper

Design Parameters for Comfortable and Safe Vehicle Seats

1997-02-24
971132
This paper discusses design parameters for automotive seats intended to simultaneously meet three design objectives: comfort, safety, and health. (“Health” refers to long-term spinal support and vibration attenuation.) For comfort, various ergonomic and human factors considerations are discussed ranging from seat dimensions and adjustments to cushioning and occupant perceptions of comfort. For safety, the principal consideration is the effectiveness of the seat in providing spinal support during accidents-particularly in rear-end collisions. An additional safety consideration is the ability of the seat to keep an occupant “in position” during an accident. Finally, for health concerns, the focus is upon maintenance of spinal stability, seat ergonomics, and road induced vibration attenuation. The paper presents design parameters satisfying these design objectives.
Technical Paper

Practical Aspects of Perturbed Boundry Condition (PBC) Finite Element Model Updating Techniques

1997-05-20
971958
The perturbed boundary condition (PBC) model updating procedure has been developed to correct the finite element model [1]. The use of additional structural configurations adds more experimental information about the system and so better updating results can be expected. While it works well for simulated examples, practical limitations and additional requirements arise when it is used to update engineering structures. In this paper, the merits and the practical limitations of the techmques will be discussed in depth through the updating of a simulated system where the “measured” data is generated by computer and a real test structure where the experimentally measured data is noisy and distorted due to leakage. Useful suggestions and recommendations are drawn to guide the model updating of practical engineering structures.
Technical Paper

Estimation of a Structure's Inertia Properties Using a Six-Axis Load Cell

1997-05-20
971957
A new method to estimate a structure's inertia properties using a prototype load cell designed to measure all loads and moments applied to a structure is presented. This prototype six-axis transducer approach employs 32 piezoelectric sensing elements which are arranged to form the load cell. These redundant measurements are used to determine the principal forces and moments from an overdetermined set of equations. Calibration of this multi-crystal load cell is performed with a fixture that utilizes a calibration mass and quasi-free-free boundary conditions. The resulting calibration matrix is a 6×32 transformation from the coupled measurements to a decoupled set of pseudo measurements consisting of the forces acting on a structure. With this transducer and its calibration matrix, a system's inertia properties can be estimated. A thorough discussion of both the calibration and inertia estimation procedure with a experimental test case is presented.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification in a Highly Reverberant Enclosure by Inverse Frequency Response Function Method: Numerical Feasibility Study

1997-05-20
971956
In highly reverberant enclosures, the identification of noise sources is a difficult and time consuming task. One effective approach is the Inverse Frequency Response Function (IFRF) method. This technique uses the inverse of an acoustic FRF matrix, that when multiplied by operating pressure response data reveals the noise source locations. Under highly reverberant conditions the deployment of a sound absorbing body is especially useful in reducing the effects of resonant modes that obscure important information in the FRFs. Without the absorption, the IFRF method becomes practically difficult to perform in these environments due to poor conditioning of the FRF matrix. This study investigates the feasibility of using Boundary Element and Finite Element Methods to establish the frequency response functions between selected panel points and microphones in the array.
Technical Paper

The Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as an Order Tracking Method

1997-05-20
972006
Present order tracking methods for solving noise and vibration problems are reviewed, both FFT and re-sampling based order tracking methods. The time variant discrete Fourier transform (TVDFT) is developed as an alternative order tracking method. This method contains many advantages which the current order tracking methods do not possess. This method has the advantage of being very computationally efficient as well as the ability to minimize leakage errors. The basic TVDFT method may also be extended to a more complex method through the use of an orthogonality compensation matrix (OCM) which can separate closely spaced orders as well as separate the contributions of crossing orders. The basic TVDFT is a combination of the FFT and the re-sampling based methods. This method can be formulated in several different manners, one of which will give results matching the re-sampling based methods very closely.
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