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Technical Paper

Stiffness of Structures and Drives in Fast Milling Machines

A stiffness requirement for high speed milling machines is determined by examining the stiffness of current generation high speed spindles. The desire for stability against chatter dictates that the stiffness of the machine structure and drives, when reflected to the tool tip exceed the spindle/tool holder/tool stiffness. The stiffness characteristics of a classical serial machine tool designed expressly for high speed milling are shown. Another potential design for high speed machining applications, the parallel kinematic or hexapod structure is also examined. It is found that hexapod structures exhibit lower structural stiffness than can be achieved in serial machines when using the same drive components. Furthermore, the stiffness of the hexapod structure varies widely across the workspace, leading to difficulties in control and limiting the achievable accuracy.
Technical Paper

High Speed Machining of Helicopter Gearcases

High speed machining of aluminum and magnesium helicopter gearcases was experimentally demonstrated to be five times more productive than contemporary conventional commercial practice for suitable operations. Appropriate techniques and performance characteristics are discussed for face milling, endmilling and planetary milling operations. Potential problem areas, such as surface characteristics and machine tool performance requirements are discussed.
Journal Article

The Semantic Web and Space Operations

In this paper, we introduce the use of ontologies to implement the information developed and organized by resource planning tools into standard project management documents covering integrated cost, resource modeling and analysis, and visualization. The basic upper ontology used for NASA Space Operations is explained and the results obtained are discussed. This ontology-centered approach is looking for tighter connections between software, hardware, and systems engineering.
Journal Article

Predictive Molding of Precision Glass Optics

Precision glass molding process is an attractive approach to manufacture small precision optical lenses in large volume over traditional manufacturing techniques because of its advantages such as low cost, fast time to market and being environment friendly. In this paper, we present a physics-based computational tool that predicts the final geometry of the glass element after molding process using the finite element method. Deformations of both glass and molds are considered at three different stages: heating, molding, and cooling. A 2D axisymmetric finite element model is developed to model the glass molding process. The proposed modeling technique is more efficient than the all-in-one modeling technique. The molds are assumed to be rigid, except for thermal expansion, at all time and glass treated as a flexible body during the compression. Details on identifying material parameters, modeling assumptions, and simplifications are discussed.