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Technical Paper

Martian Gardens: Student Designs of Bio-Regenerative Life Support Systems in a 1st Year Undergraduate Seminar Course

2007-07-09
2007-01-3065
The following abstract is that provided to first year undergraduate students as part of the recruitment effort for 1st Year Seminar Courses at the University of Guelph. When humankind begins the colonization of the moon or Mars, we will be bringing along more of Earth than one might think. A number of space and government agencies around the world, including researchers at the Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility, University of Guelph, are involved in the design and engineering of self-contained ecosystems based on Earthly biological processes. These processes can be harnessed, with complementary physical and chemical technologies to support human life (food production, air revitalization, psychology) in the hostile conditions of space.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Navigation Systems on the Perception Time of Young and Older Drivers

2006-04-03
2006-01-0577
Electronic navigational systems allow drivers to receive travel directions while driving, rather than preplanning a route. This additional attentional load on drivers might prove to be hazardous -- particularly for older adults who have greater difficulties multitasking and switching their attention between different parts of the visual field. A driving simulator was used to evaluate the perception time to critical events in the presence and absence of a navigation system with young (n=18, age=18.8years SD= 0.7years) and older drivers (n=15, age=73.1years, SD=6.1years). The results of this study indicated that though older drivers were slower to react to critical events, and both groups were faster to react to pedestrian incursions than sudden light changes, messages from the travel system did not interfere significantly with perception reaction time in either group.
Technical Paper

Using Driving Simulators to Expand Moose Perception Data: Some Results and Validity Issues

2007-04-16
2007-01-0707
Moose collisions injure and kill a multitude of animals and humans each year. While in-vehicle warning systems are under development, the evaluation of these systems is a challenging process. In comparison with traditional on-road instrumented vehicles, driving simulators offer safer testing environments, but pose validity concerns. To understand the validity issues, this study replicates and expands upon Robins's [1] on-road findings in “Moose Visibility Distance in Nighttime Highway Driving Conditions: A Preliminary Investigation”. The significant effect of moose location on perception time is supported while our data suggests that typical speed limits are even more problematic than Robins demonstrated. The results are discussed with a focus on understanding the validity of simulated driving and establishing future validation research directions.
Technical Paper

Driver Response Time to Midblock Crossing Pedestrians

2018-04-03
2018-01-0514
Vehicle-pedestrian collisions account for 15% of fatal crashes in the USA, and there has been a twelve percent increase in fatal crashes in the USA from 2006 to 2015. Although research exists on the response time of drivers responding to pedestrian path intrusions, data on the response time of through drivers to jaywalking pedestrians crossing from the far side of the road has not been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify Driver Response Time (DRT) to a pedestrian that intrudes perpendicularly into the path of a vehicle from the far curb (adjacent to oncoming traffic). 50 (NFemale = 25; NMale = 25) licensed volunteer drivers took part in a study at the University of Guelph Driving Research in Virtual Environments (DRiVE) lab using an Oktal complete vehicle driving simulator.
Technical Paper

Driver Response Time to Cyclist Path Intrusions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0531
Motor vehicle crashes with cyclists are on the rise, with a six percent increase in fatal crashes from 2006 to 2015 in the USA. Although some research exists on the response time of drivers to some types of path intrusions, data on the perception-response of through drivers to cyclists who fail to stop at a stop sign, and ride into the path of the vehicle has not been researched. The purpose of this study was to quantify the Driver Response Time (DRT) to a cyclist that intrudes perpendicularly in front of a through vehicle at an intersection where the driver has the right-of-way.
Technical Paper

Driver Response Time to Left-Turning Vehiclesat Traffic Signal Controlled Intersections

2018-04-03
2018-01-0521
Left-turn crashes account for almost one quarter of all collisions. Although research has quantified the response time of drivers to left-turning vehicles with high acceleration profiles, research is lacking for driver responses to realistic left-turning vehicle acceleration. The purpose of this research was to determine the Driver Response Time (DRT) to a left-turning vehicle from the first lateral movement of the left-turning vehicle. The DRT was measured from first lateral movement of the left turning vehicle, until the through driver reacts, whether by touching the brake pedal, swerving, releasing/applying the accelerator, or a combination of these inputs. Ninety-eight (NFemale = 48; NMale = 50) licensed volunteer drivers took part in a study at the University of Guelph Driving Research in Virtual Environments (DRiVE) lab using an Oktal complete vehicle driving simulator.
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