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Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Drop Size and Wall Impingement Measurements

1995-10-01
952480
A significant fraction of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions occurs during the cold-start phase of an engine's operating cycle. Fuel drop sizes in the cylinder and impingement of fuel on the cylinder wall are two factors which can affect the HC emissions during this period. Therefore, measurements of in-cylinder drop sizes and wall fuel impingement were made on a steady flow bench at flow rates and manifold vacuum conditions which simulated desired engine operating conditions. Experimental variables included three injector types, two cylinder head geometries, three valve lifts, and two simulated engine speeds. Injector performance was assessed prior to the flow bench studies. Fuel injector performance was found to affect in-cylinder drop size and wall fuel impingement. The dual-jet injector produced two liquid streams which were not atomized into drops at a distance of 10 cm (a typical injector to valve distance) from the injector tip.
Technical Paper

Machine Vision System for Quantifying Engine Valve Deposits

1993-10-01
932807
Inlet valve deposits in gasoline engines have a significant effect on engine operation with particular reference to cold starting and driveability. Present methods of quantifying these deposits by weighing them or rating them with the aid of a visual rating scale are recognized as not being reliable indices of the detrimental effect of these deposits. A valve deposit quantification system was developed that relied on the use of machine vision. Algorithms were formulated to track the silhouetted edge profile of a backlit valve from which a valve volume was determined. The valve deposit volume was calculated as the difference in volume between the valve in its clean and coked states. The system was able to detect a minimum coke deposit level of 0.06g at the 95% confidence limit, the accuracy being based on the correlation between the volume as determined by the vision system and the mass of the deposit.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Reinforcement Learning on Air Source Heat Pump Defrost Control for Full Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1193
Air source heat pumps as the heating system for full electric vehicles are drawing more and more attention in recent years. Despite the high energy efficiency, frost accumulation on the heat pump evaporator is one of the major challenges associated with air source heat pumps. The evaporator needs to be actively defrosted periodically and heat pump heating will be interrupted during defrosting process. Proper defrost control is needed to obtain high average heat pump energy efficiency. In this paper, a new method for generating air source heat pump defrost control policy using reinforcement learning is introduced. This model-free method has several advantages. It can automatically generate optimal defrost control policy instead of requiring manually determination of the control policy parameters and logics.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Impact on R134a Distribution and Microchannel Heat Exchanger Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-0706
Lubricant in compressor usually flows out with refrigerant. Thus, it is evitable for lubricant to be present in the heat exchanger, which significantly affects the heat exchanger performance. This paper is to investigate the effects of PAG oil on R134a distribution in the microchannel heat exchanger (MCHX) with vertical headers and to provide a tool to model R134a (with oil) distribution and its effects on MCHX capacity. The flow configuration in MCHX under the heat pump mode of the reversible system is mimicked in the experimental facility: refrigerant-oil mixture is fed into the test header from the bottom pass and exits through the top pass. It is found that a small amount of oil (OCR=0.5%) worsen the distribution. But further increasing OCR to 2.5% and 4.7%, the distribution becomes better.
Technical Paper

A New Euler/Lagrange Approach for Multiphase Simulations of a Multi-Hole GDI Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0949
Compared to conventional injection techniques, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has a lot of advantages such as increased fuel efficiency, high power output and low emission levels, which can be more accurately controlled. Therefore, this technique is an important topic of today's injection system research. Although the operating conditions of GDI injectors are simpler from a numerical point of view because of smaller Reynolds and Weber numbers compared to Diesel injection systems, accurate simulations of the breakup in the vicinity of the nozzle are very challenging. Combined with the complications of experimental techniques that could be applied inside the nozzle and at the nozzle exit, this is the reason for the lack of understanding the primary breakup behavior of current GDI injectors.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of an Air Conditioning-Heat Pump System for Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0257
This paper presents the experimentally obtained performance characteristics of an air conditioning-heat pump system that uses heat exchangers from a commercially available Nissan Leaf EV. It was found that refrigerant charge needed for cooling operation was larger than that for heating function with the test setup. The effects of: a). indoor air flow rate, b). outdoor air flow rate, and c). compressor speed on heating capacity and energy efficiency were explored and presented. Appropriate opening size of expansion valve that controlled subcooling for better energy efficiency was discussed and results were presented. Expansion valve opening size also strongly affected charge migration. Warm-up tests at different ambient conditions showed the necessity of a secondary heater to be reserved for very low ambient temperature.
Technical Paper

Refrigerant-Oil Flow at the Compressor Discharge

2016-04-05
2016-01-0247
Automotive air conditioning compressor produces an annular-mist flow consisting of gas-phase refrigerant flow with oil film and oil droplets. This paper reports a method to calculate the oil retention and oil circulation ratio based on oil film thickness, wave speed, oil droplet size, oil droplet speed, and mass flow rate. Oil flow parameters are measured by high-speed camera capture and video processing in a non-invasive way. The estimated oil retention and oil circulation ratio results are compared quantitatively with the measurements from system experiments under different compressor outlet gas superficial velocity. The agreement between video result and sampling measurement shows that this method can be applied in other annular-mist flow analysis. It is also shown that most of the oil exists in film from the mass point of view while oil droplets contributes more to the oil mass flow rate because they travel in a much higher speed.
Technical Paper

Temperature Control of Water with Heating, Cooling and Mixing in a Process with Recycle Loop

2014-04-01
2014-01-0652
A hot and cold water mixing process with a steam condenser and a chilled water heat exchanger is set up for an engine EGR fouling test. The test rig has water recycled in the loop of a pump, heat exchangers, a three-way mixing valve, and a test EGR unit. The target unit temperature is controlled by a heating, cooling and mixing process with individual valves regulating the flow-rate of saturated steam, chilled water and mixing ratio. The challenges in control design are the dead-time, interaction, nonlinearity and multivariable characteristics of heat exchangers, plus the flow recycle in the system. A systems method is applied to extract a simple linear model for control design. The method avoids the nonlinearity and interaction among different temperatures at inlet, outlet and flow-rate. The test data proves the effectiveness of systems analysis and modeling methodology. As a result, the first-order linear model facilitates the controller design.
Technical Paper

Model Accuracy of Variable Fidelity Vapor Cycle System Simulations

2014-09-16
2014-01-2140
As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems advance, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for cost effective subsystem optimization. The success of the model-based design process is contingent on accurate prediction of the system response prior to hardware fabrication, but the level of fidelity necessary to achieve this objective is often called into question. Identifying the key benefits and limitations of model fidelity along with the key parameters that drive model accuracy will help improve the model-based design process enabling low cost, optimized solutions for current and future programs. In this effort, the accuracy and capability of a vapor cycle system (VCS) model were considered from a model fidelity and parameter accuracy standpoint. A range of model fidelity was evaluated in terms of accuracy, capability, simulation speed, and development time.
Technical Paper

Oil Circulation Rate in Ejector Cooling Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0077
In this study, the influence of compressor speed, ejector motive nozzle needle position and evaporator inlet metering valve opening on the oil circulation rates (OCRs) of an automotive R744 transcritical standard ejector cycle was experimentally investigated. Significantly higher OCR (~10%) was observed at the evaporator inlet of the ejector cycle than at the high pressure side. It has been observed that evaporator OCR was increased with increasing compressor speed. When the motive nozzle needle moved towards the nozzle throat, both compressor discharge flow rate and evaporator OCR were observed to be significantly lowered. As the evaporator inlet metering valve opening was adjusted, the compressor mass flow rate did not vary significantly while the evaporator mass flow rate decreased with decreasing metering valve opening. The evaporator OCR decreased from 6.5% to 2.2% as the metering valve opening varied from 86% to 27%.
Technical Paper

Application of Vortex Control to an Automotive Transcritical R744 Ejector Cycle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0060
Expansion work recovery by two-phase ejector is known to be beneficial to vapor compression cycle performance. However, one of the biggest challenges with ejector vapor compression cycles is that the ejector cycle performance is sensitive to working condition changes which are common in automotive applications. Different working conditions require different ejector geometries to achieve maximum performance. Slightly different geometries may result in substantially different COPs under the same conditions. The ejector motive nozzle throat diameter (motive nozzle restrictiveness) is one of the key parameters that can significantly affect ejector cycle COP. This paper presents the experimental results of the application of a new two-phase nozzle restrictiveness control mechanism to an automotive transcritical R744 ejector cycle.
Technical Paper

Programmable Electrohydraulic Valve

1999-09-14
1999-01-2852
A programmable, four way directional control valve, with the versatility to operate in any type of hydraulic system and perform any function, was designed with functional variations to be made in the control software, rather than the hardware. This paper reports on the first reduction to practice, along with the development of a new “inferred flow feedback” concept. The initial prototype has shown promising results, in spite of hardware limitations encountered: flow forces and valve dynamics. Pressure control is especially encouraging, with nearly perfect regulation of pressure across the flow range of the programmable relief valve.
Journal Article

A New Control Mechanism for Two-Phase Ejector in Vapor Compression Cycles for Automotive Applications Using Adjustable Motive Nozzle Inlet Swirl

2016-04-05
2016-01-0243
Expansion work recovery by two-phase ejector is known to be beneficial to vapor compression cycle performance. However, one of the biggest challenges with ejector vapor compression cycles is that the ejector cycle performance is sensitive to working condition changes which are common in automotive applications. Different working conditions require different ejector geometries to achieve maximum performance. Slightly different geometries may result in substantially different COPs under the same conditions. The ejector motive nozzle throat diameter (motive nozzle restrictiveness) is one of the key parameters that can significantly affect ejector cycle COP. This paper presents a new two-phase nozzle restrictiveness control mechanism which is possibly applicable to two-phase ejectors used in vapor compression cycles.
Journal Article

Modeling of a Reversible Air Conditioning-Heat Pump System for Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0261
This paper presents a simulation model for a reversible air conditioning and heat pump system for electric vehicles. The system contains a variable speed compressor, three microchannel heat exchangers, an accumulator, and two electronic expansion valves. Heat exchangers are solved by discretizing into cells. Compressor and accumulator models are developed by fitting data with physical insights. Expansion valves are modeled by isenthalpic processes. System performance is calculated by connecting all parts in the same way as the physical system and solved iteratively. The model is reasonably validated against experimental data from a separate experimental study. Future improvement is needed to take into account maldistribution in outdoor heat exchanger working as an evaporator in HP mode. Charge retention in components also requires further study.
Journal Article

Influence of Nozzle Divergent Part Length and Throat Diameter on Vortex Control of Initially Subcooled Flashing Flow

2017-03-28
2017-01-0165
Expansion work recovery by two-phase ejector is known to be beneficial to vapor compression cycle performance. However, one of the biggest challenges with ejector vapor compression cycle is that the ejector cycle performance is sensitive to working condition changes which are common in many applications, including automotive AC systems. Different working conditions require different ejector geometries to achieve maximum performance. Slightly different geometries may result in substantially different COPs under the same conditions. Ejector motive nozzle throat diameter (motive nozzle restrictiveness) is one of the key parameters that can significantly affect COP. This paper presents the experimental investigation of a new motive nozzle restrictiveness control mechanism for two-phase ejectors used in vapor compression cycles, which has the advantages of being simple, potentially less costly and less vulnerable to clogging.
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