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Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Data Acquisition and Heat Release Analysis on a Personal Computer

The availability and low price of personal computers with suitable interface equipment has made it practical to use such a system for cylinder pressure data acquisition. With this objective, procedures have been developed to measure and record cylinder pressure on an individual crank angle basis and obtain an average cylinder pressure trace using an Apple II Plus personal computer. These procedures as well as methods for checking the quality of cylinder pressure data are described. A simplified heat release analysis technique for an approximate first look at the data quality is presented. Comparisons are made between the result of this analysis, the Krieger-Borman heat release analysis which uses complete chemical equilibrium. The comparison is made to show the suitability of the simplified analysis in judging the quality of the pressure data.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Visualization in an Optical HSDI Diesel Engine Operated in Low-Temperature Combustion Mode with Bio-diesel and Diesel Fuels

An optically accessible single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) Diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common rail injection system was used to study the spray and combustion processes for European low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel, and their blends at different blending ratio. Influences of injection timing and fuel type on liquid fuel evolution and combustion characteristics were investigated under similar loads. The in-cylinder pressure was measured and the heat release rate was calculated. High-speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the liquid distribution and evolution. High-speed combustion video was also captured for all the studied cases using the same frame rate. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. The experimental results indicated that for all of the conditions the heat release rate was dominated by a premixed combustion pattern and the heat release rate peak became smaller with injection timing retardation for all test fuels.
Technical Paper

Atomization Characteristics of Multi-component Bio-fuel Systems under Micro-explosion Conditions

A numerical study of micro-explosion in multi-component droplets is presented. The homogeneous nucleation theory is used in describing the bubble generation process. A modified Rayleigh equation is then used to calculate the bubble growth rate. The breakup criterion is then determined by applying a linear stability analysis on the bubble-droplet system. After the explosion/breakup, the atomization characteristics, including Sauter mean radius and averaged velocity of the secondary droplets, are calculated from conservation equations. Micro-explosion can be enhanced by introducing biodiesel into the fuel blends of ethanol and tetradecane. Micro-explosion is more likely to occur at high ambient pressure. However, increasing the ambient temperature does not have a significant effect on micro-explosion. There exists an optimal composition in the liquid mixture for micro-explosion.
Technical Paper

Application of Intermediate Vapor Bypass to Mobile Heat Pump System: Extending Operating Range to Lower Ambient Temperature with Low Pressure Low GWP Fluid

With market share of electric vehicles continue to grow, there is an increasing demand of mobile heat pump for cabin climate control, as it has much higher energy efficiency when compared to electric heating and helps to cut drive range reduction. One big challenge of heat pump systems is that their heating capacities drop significantly when operating at very low ambient temperature, especially for those with low pressure refrigerants. This paper presents a way to improve low ambient temperature heating performance by using intermediate vapor bypass with the outdoor heat exchanger, which works as an evaporator in heat pump mode. The experimental results show a 35% increase of heating capacity at −20 °C ambient with the improved system as compared to the baseline, and heating performance factor also slightly increased when the system is working at higher ambient temperature to reach the same heating capacity as the baseline.
Technical Paper

Performance Characteristics of a Mobile Heat Pump System at Low Ambient Temperature

The demand for mobile heat pump systems increases with the growing popularity of electric vehicles. One big challenge of such systems using low pressure refrigerant is the substantial drop of heating capacity at low ambient temperature conditions, when heat is most needed. The low suction density associated with low operating pressure in the evaporator is the major reason for the capacity drop. In extremely low ambient temperature, compressor speed may need to be regulated in order to prevent suction pressure going below atmospheric pressure, hence further reducing heat pumping capability. Other factors like pressure drop induced temperature glide and refrigerant maldistribution in the outdoor evaporator also weakens the system ability to absorb heat from ambient air. This paper presents detailed and in-depth analysis of the performance and limiting factors on low ambient temperature operation of a mobile heat pump system using refrigerant R1234yf.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-1D Multi-Component Fuel Droplet Vaporization using Discrete Approach with Experimental Validation

An efficient multi-component fuel droplet vaporization model has been developed in this work using discrete approach. The precise modeling of droplet vaporization process is divided into two parts: vapor-phase and liquid-phase sub-models. Temporal evolution of flow inside the droplet is considered to describe the transient behavior introduced by the slow diffusion process. In order to account for the internal circulation motion, surface regression and finite diffusion without actually resolving the spatial governing equations within the liquid phase, a set of ordinary differential equations is applied to describe the evolution of the non-uniform distributions of universal diffusional variables, i.e. temperature and species mass fraction. The differences between the droplet surface and bulk mean states are modeled by constructing a quasi-1D frame; the effect of the internal circulations is taken into consideration by using the effective diffusivity rather than physical diffusivity.
Technical Paper

Measurements of the Evaporation Behavior of the Film of Fuel Blends

The formation of fuel film in the combustion cylinder affects the mixing process of the air and the fuel, and the process of the combustion propagation in engines. Some models of film evaporation have been developed to predict the evaporation behavior of the film, but rarely experimental results have been produced, especially when the temperature is high. In this study, the evaporation behavior of the film of different species of oil and their blends at different temperature are observed. The 45 μL films of isooctane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and their blends were placed on a quartz glass substrate in the closed temperature-controlled chamber. The shape change of the film during evaporation was monitored by a high-speed camera through the window of the chamber. First, the binary blends film of isooctane and one of the other three oils were evaporated at 30 °C, 50 °C, 70 °C and 90 °C.
Technical Paper

Methods for Detection of Lubrication Failure Applied to a Swashplate Compressor

Understanding lubrication failures at the shoe/swashplate contact of automotive swashplate compressors will greatly enhance the reliability of the air conditioning system. Maintaining proper lubrication is not always possible during transient conditions. Therefore, a method for detection of lubricant loss is of great interest to the automotive industry. Three methods for detecting lubrication loss were examined: contact resistance, acoustic emission, and dynamic pressure oscillations. A mobile air conditioning test stand capable of recording many system parameters was used. Oil return to the compressor was monitored using an oil separator and a refrigerant/oil concentration sensor. Data were taken during steady oil return rates and after oil shut off. The electrical contact resistance between the shoe and swashplate was used to indicate changes in the lubrication conditions at this critical interface. Measurements were taken at two oil return rates during steady oil return tests.
Technical Paper

Improving Energy Efficiency in Automotive Vapor Compression Cycles through Advanced Control Design

This paper presents an experimental analysis of the performance of various control strategies applied to automotive air conditioning systems. A comparison of the performance of a thermal expansion valve (TEV) and an electronic expansion valve (EEV) over a vehicle drive cycle is presented. Improved superheat regulation and minor efficiency improvements are shown for the EEV control strategies. The efficiency benefits of continuous versus cycled compressor operation are presented, and a discussion of significant improvements in energy efficiency using compressor control is provided. Dual PID loops are shown to control evaporator outlet pressure while regulating superheat. The introduction of a static decoupler is shown to improve the performance of the dual PID loop controller. These control strategies allow for system capacity control, enabling continuous operation and achieving significant energy efficiency improvements.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.