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Technical Paper

High-Fidelity Road/Tire Interaction Models for Real Time Simulation

Much of the R&D for real-time driving simulation has focused on accurate models for the kinematics and dynamics of vehicles. The fidelity of simulation, however, depends just as much on the dynamics of the forces supporting the vehicles as it does on vehicle's responses to those forces. Accurate models of the surface and surface-tire interactions are key to simulating the dynamics of those forces. This paper summarizes requirements for real-time surface models, and for modeling the surface/tire force interactions with sufficient fidelity to complement advanced vehicle dynamics models. It also describes work completed to date in demonstrating these models. This involves three related developments: 1) models of real surfaces, 2) software tools and algorithms to create and optimize road databases, and 3) models of deflecting and enveloping tire responses.
Technical Paper

Virtual Prototyping for Military Vehicle Acquisition

The emergence of high-speed parallel computers, new mechanical system dynamic simulation formulations, and a range of driver-in-the-loop vehicle simulators is shown to provide a qualitatively new virtual prototyping tool to support military vehicle acquisition. The state-of-the-art of driver-in-the-loop simulation and projections regarding its refinement for use in military vehicle development are outlined, with emphasis on providing a virtual prototyping capability that accounts for operator-vehicle interaction, prior to fabrication and test of prototypes. It is shown that the potential now exists to investigate trade-offs involving vehicle design and operator effectiveness that heretofore required a physical prototype. This will permit the engineering community to optimize the design of military vehicles for the soldier, beginning early in the design and development process and continuing through product improvement.
Technical Paper

System Level RBDO for Military Ground Vehicles using High Performance Computing

The Army continues to improve its Reliability-based Design Optimization (RBDO) process, expanding from component optimization to system optimization. We are using the massively parallel computing power of the Department of Defense (DoD) High Performance Computing (HPC) systems to simultaneously optimize multiple components which interact with each other in a mechanical system. Specifically, we have a subsystem of a military ground vehicle, consisting of more than four components and are simultaneously optimizing five components of that subsystem using RBDO methods. We do not simply optimize one component at a time, sequentially, and iterate until convergence. We actually simultaneously optimize all components together. This can be done efficiently using the parallel computing environment. We will discuss the results of this optimization, and the advantages and disadvantages of using HPC systems for this work.
Technical Paper

Synthesis and Analysis of the Double-Axle Steering Mechanism Considering Dynamic Loads

This paper investigates a hierarchical optimization procedure for the optimum synthesis of a double-axle steering mechanism by considering the dynamic load of a vehicle which is seldom discussed in the previous literature. Firstly, a multi-body model of double-axle steering is presented by characterizing the detailed leaf spring effect. Accordingly, the influences of dynamic load including the motion interference of steering linkage resulted from the elastic deformation of leaf spring, and the effects of wheel slip angle and the position discrepancy of wheel speed rotation centers are explored systematically. And then, a hierarchical optimization method based on target cascading methodology is proposed to classify the design variables of double-axle steering mechanism into four levels. At last, a double-axle steering mechanism of a heavy-duty truck is utilized to demonstrate the validity of this method.
Technical Paper

Multiple User Defined End-Effectors with Shared Memory Communication for Posture Prediction

Inverse Kinematics on a human model combined with optimization provides a powerful tool to predict realistic human postures. A human posture prediction tool brings up the need for greater flexibility for the user, as well as efficient computation performance. This paper demonstrates new methods that were developed for the application of digital human simulation as a software package by allowing for any number of user specified end-effectors and increasing communication efficiency for posture prediction. The posture prediction package for the digital human, Santos™, uses optimization constrained by end-effectors on the body with targets in the environment, along with variable cost functions that are minimized, to solve for all joint angles in a human body. This results in realistic human postures which can be used to create optimal designs for things that humans can physically interact with.
Technical Paper

Validation Methodology Development for Predicted Posture

As predictive capabilities advance and human-model fidelity increases, so must validation of such predictions and models. However, subjective validation is sufficient only as an initial indicator; thorough, systematic studies must be conducted as well. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to validate postures that are determined using single-objective optimization (SOO) and multi-objective optimization (MOO), as applied to the virtual human Santos™. In addition, a general methodology and tools for posture-prediction validation are presented. We find that using MOO provides improvement over SOO, and the results are realistic from both a subjective and objective perspective.
Technical Paper

A New Discomfort Function for Optimization-Based Posture Prediction

Using multi-objective optimization, we develop a new human performance measure for direct optimizationbased posture prediction that incorporates three key factors associated with musculoskeletal discomfort: 1) the tendency to move different segments of the body sequentially, 2) the tendency to gravitate to a comfortable neutral position, and 3) the discomfort associated with moving while joints are near their respective limits. This performance measure operates in real-time and provides realistic postures. The results are viewed using Santos™, an advanced virtual human, and they are validated using motion-capture. This research lays groundwork for studying how and why humans move as they do.