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Technical Paper

Experimental Test of a New Compressed Natural Gas Engine with Direct Injection

This paper presents experimental test results of a new compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI) engine that has been developed from modification of a multi cylinder gasoline port injection (PI) engine. The major modifications done are (1) the injection system has been modified to gas direct injection using new high pressure gas injectors, (2) compression ratio has been changed from 10 to 14 through modification of piston and cylinder head, and (3) new spark plugs with long edge were used to ignite the CNG fuel. The CNG pressure at common rail was kept at 20 bar to be injected into engine cylinder. The engine has been operated with full throttle conditions to compare all the results with original base engine such as gasoline port injection engine and the CNG bi-fuel engine where the base engine has been converted to bi-fuel injection system to be operated with gasoline and CNG fuels.
Technical Paper

The Use of Dihydroxy Fatty Acid and Palm-Based Polyol as Selected Components of Envo-Diesel Fuel Blends to Reduce C.I. Engine Gaseous Emissions and Carbon Deposits

Nowadays, engine problems such as higher NOx, increase in smoke content and low brake power output due to biofuel fueled engine have been reduced by several improvements by using additives or modifications on engine itself. This paper presents a type of compositions and proper combination of selected chemical components which may be used in palm olein-diesel blends namely “Envo-Diesel”. The blended component was designed as an additive package which was blended with diesel-biofuel at 99:1 up to 95:5 percent ratios. Blended fuels with additive have been used in the single cylinder engine which operated under 2000 rpm for 100 hours. Engine performance and emissions tests were conducted as well as engine deposit analysis was done after 100 hours engine operation time.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of a Common-Rail Diesel Engine Fuelled with Coconut Oil Methyl Ester

The use of diesel engines is increasing rapidly thanks to their superior fuel economy, higher efficiency and excellent reliability. The energy crisis of fossil fuel depletion, rising price of diesel and environmental degradation have triggered a search for clean, sustainable and alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Biodiesel is one of the most promising and demanding alternative fuels because it is a biodegradable, non-toxic and renewable fuel. In the present work, an experimental investigation on the effect of injection timing on engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics with coconut oil methyl ester (CME) was conducted in a high-pressure common-rail direct injection diesel engine. The tests were performed at constant speed of 2000 rpm and 50% throttle position operation. The test fuels included baseline diesel fuel and two different fuel blends of CME (B20 and B40).
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Optimum Blend Ratio of Jatropha, Palm and Coconut Based Biodiesel to Improve Fuel Properties, Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics

Fossil fuel is depleting due to increase in usage and we are facing energy crises. For us to get out of such plight situations, scientists are looking into alternative ways to produce energy that can be attained at low cost and also eco-friendly. Biodiesel can be an effective solution in spite of some limitations to use as fuel because of poor fuel properties. From this point of view, experiment had been conducted to improve fuel properties of palm biodiesel by blending with coconut and jatropha biodiesel. MATLAB optimization tool was used to find out the optimum blend ratio to achieve overall better fuel properties. Linear relationship among the fuel properties was considered for MATLAB coding. The resultant optimum blend ratio and the equations of the MATLAB code were used to predict the fuel properties values and the experimental fuel properties values of the optimum blends were compared with the predicted values.
Technical Paper

Fuel Additive that Cuts Emission and Increases Brake Power in a Small Bio-Fuel Diesel Engine

This paper presents experimental test results of a diesel engine using additive added bio Diesel oil obtained from palm oil. The test results obtained are brake power, specific fuel consumption (SFC) and exhaust emissions. In addition, anti-wear characteristics of fuel's contaminated lubricants were observed using a tribometer test. A computer control dynamometer-engine test bed was used to measure engine brake power and SFC at half throttle condition with speed range of 1000 rpm to 4000 rpm. The emission test was done with dynamometer fixed load of 50 Nm and constant engine speed of 2250 rpm. A total of three fuels or 100% diesel fuel (B0); 20% palm oil diesel (POD) and 80% B0 (B20); and B20 with X% additive (B20X) were selected for this investigation. The B20X is the additive added bio Diesel oil where X is the percentage (in this investigation X=1% of B20) of additive in B20 fuel.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Biological Fuel in Diesel Engine

This paper presents the results of an experimental work carried out to evaluate the combustion and emission characteristics of ordinary coconut oil (COIL) blended fuel on unmodified indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine. Diesel fuel (DF2) was used for comparison purposes. The test results on coconut oil blended fuel showed that the addition of up to 30% coconut oil with DF2 has significantly increased brake power and net heat release rate with a net reduction in exhaust emissions such as HC, NOx, CO, smoke and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This means that COIL blended fuel has similar ignition quality as DF2, and indeed better combustion. However, COIL blended fuel increases specific fuel consumption due to higher specific density of coconut oil. When more than 30% of coconut oil is added (40% - 50%), the brake power produced and the net heat release rate are slightly less due to low internal energy, but better combustion still takes place.
Technical Paper

Air -Fuel Ratio Calculation for a Natural Gas Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine

Air-fuel ratio (AFR) is a crucial parameter for combustion controls in internal combustion engines. An incorrect AFR metering for reciprocating internal combustion engine causes high toxic gases emissions formulation, serious fuel consumption problems and unbearable combustion noise and combustion deterioration. Traditionally, the AFR is obtained by direct measurement of intake air and the fuel either injected into the combustion chamber or pre-mixed at the carburetor. However, the accurate AFR obtained from direct measurement is difficult due to measuring equipments resolution prone to errors. This paper describes a method for accurate determination of air-fuel ratio based on exhaust emission gas analysis as an additional tool used to be validated the conventional direct air fuel flow rates measurement.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Lube Oil Monitoring of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Palm Oil Methyl Esters and Its Emulsions

Results of exhaust emissions and lube oil monitoring, of a diesel engine fueled with Malaysian palm oil diesel (POD) [POD is palm oil Methyl esters] and ordinary diesel (OD) emulsions are compared with those obtained when 100 % POD and OD fuel were used. The POD and OD fuel were obtained in commercial form, and their emulsions were created by mixing POD and OD fuel to contain 5 and 10 % of water by volume. Promising results have been obtained. Neither the lower cetane number of POD fuel nor its emulsification with water presented obstacle to the operation of diesel engine during steady state engine tests and the twenty-hour endurance tests. Polymerization and carbon deposits on fuel injector nozzles were monitored. Engine performance and fuel consumption for POD and its emulsions are comparable with those of OD fuel. Accumulations of wear metal debris in crank-ease oil samples were lower with POD and emulsified fuels compared with baseline OD fuel.