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Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Composition on D.I. Diesel Engine Particulates and Study of Oxygen-Enriched Diesel NO Formation

Diesel engines are used in heavy duty applications because of their high efficiency and reliability. However, their high diesel particulates and NOx emissions remain major concerns. An eight cylinder direct injection diesel engine was connected to a partial flow particulate sampling mini-dilution tunnel. Six different grades of diesel fuels were studied for their regular emissions as well as smoke and particulate emissions. Each fuel was tested at three engine speeds and full load. This paper presents the results of these tests which includes analysis of the effects of load, cetane number, 90% distillation temperature, and density for steady state conditions. A correlation was developed for converting smoke numbers in Hartridge Smoke Units (HSU) to the specific particulate emissions by evaluating results of all fuels tests. Another correlation was also developed for diesel particulates and NOx emissions trade-off.
Technical Paper

Optimum Control of an S.I. Engine with a λ=5 Capability

HAJI (Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition) is an advanced combustion initiation system for otherwise standard S.I engines. It utilises the fluid mechanics of a turbulent, chemically active jet, combined with the reliability of spark igniting rich hydrogen mixtures. The result is an extremely robust ignition system, capable of developing power from an engine charged with air-fuel mixtures as lean as λ = 5. Experiments have been performed using a single cylinder engine operating on gasoline in the speed range of 600-1800 r/min. Data are presented in the form of maps which describe fuel efficiency, combustion stability and emissions with respect to load, speed, air-fuel ratio and throttle. The results are incorporated into a model of a known engine and vehicle and this is used to estimate performance over the Federal drive-cycle.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Air Fuel Ratio Optimisation of a Lean Burn SI Engine

An adaptive air fuel ratio (AFR) control system has been implemented on a modern high performance fuel injected four cylinder engine. A pressure transducer in the combustion chamber is used to measure the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) for efficiency and cyclic variability feedback. The controller tunes the relative AFR, λ, in the range λ = 1 to λ = 1.5, to maximise the thermal efficiency in real time. The system adaptively accounts for changes in operating conditions such as ambient temperatures and user demands. The IMEP feedback allows the closed loop control system to update every few revolutions with short tune in times in the order of seconds. Open and closed loop test results are presented, demonstrating the incremental efficiency gains over fixed or mapped AFR control. The system continually adjusts the fuelling for maximum efficiency given its constraints and provides a basis for optimisation of future lean burn technologies.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Emissions from a HAJI Equipped Ultra-lean Burn SI Engine

Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition (HAJI) is a novel method of maintaining combustion stability during ultra-lean operation of conventional, homogeneously charged, SI engines. When operating with HAJI above λ=2, CO and NOx emissions fall to low levels while HC emissions rise to approximately double their stoichiometric value. HC emissions were investigated by operating a HAJI equipped, optically accessible, four-valve single cylinder engine at 600 r/min, wide open throttle (WOT), and from λ=1 to λ=2.4. A fast flame ionisation detector was used to collect real time hydrocarbon concentration data from behind one of the exhaust valves, inside the HAJI pre-chamber, and from near the combustion chamber wall. Flame images were also obtained. Exhaust port sampling shows that the HC concentration during blowdown and early exhaust is increased, but the concentration at the end of exhaust is decreased.
Technical Paper

A New Look at Oxygen Enrichment 1) The Diesel Engine

New concepts in oxygen enrichment of the inlet air have been examined in tests on two direct injection diesel engines, showing: significant reduction in particulate emissions (nearly 80% at full load), increased thermal efficiency if injection timing control is employed, substantial reductions in exhaust smoke under most conditions, ability to burn inferior quality fuels which is economically very attractive and achivement of turbo-charged levels of output with consequential benefits of increased power/mass and improved thermal efficiency. The replacement of an engine's turbocharger and intercooling system with a smaller turbocharger and polymeric membrane elements to supply the oxygen enriched stream should allow improved transient response. NOx emission remain a problem and can only be reduced to normally aspirated engine levels at some efficiency penalty.
Technical Paper

Giving Standard Diesel Fuels Premium Performance Using Oxygen-Enriched Air in Diesel Engines

Oxygen-enriched air supplied to a diesel engine has significant benefits in reducing the particulate emissions of all fuels tested. A Caterpillar 3208 direct injection diesel engine was modified to operate on a wide range of fuel grades including residual fuel oils with oxygen-enriched intake air. The paper focuses on four fuels, two fuels were regular automotive distillate fuels, the third was a low emission diesel fuel and the fourth fuel had high boiling point fractions. Comparison with less extensive work on residual fuel oil is also included. Smoke and particulates decrease by up to 94% at full load with 27% oxygen concentration. Performance with oxygen addition using regular fuels showed comparable smoke and particulates to a premium priced low emission fuel used specifically in underground mines.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Using Lagrangian Code

A new method of solution is presented for the equations governing unsteady flow field during compression and combustion in a spark ignition. The Lagrangian approach, an application of a vortex method to the three-dimensional solution of the continuity and conservation equations, avoids the need for a turbulence model and wall laws close to the surfaces. Vorticity is introduced as blobs close to the wall which diffuse into the main flow. The potential equation is solved by the boundary element method. Combustion is treated as a thin sheet propagating at laminar flame speed using an extension of the simple line interface method to three-dimensions, now called a simple plane interface method. The code is demonstrated in application to a wedge shaped combustion chamber with surface irregularities closely approximating the actual shape.
Technical Paper

Observation of the Effect of Swirl on Flame Propagation and the Derived Heat Release and Mass Burning Rates

A high speed research engine has optical access to over 80% of the combustion chamber volume through a piston with a quartz window. The engine has been used to study the effect of swirl on the spark-ignited combustion by means of high speed photography and analysis of combustion-time data. Results over the speed, swirl and mixture strength range show the flame travel derived from the pressure to agree with the measured flame travel to within 3% on average. Turbulent to laminar flame speed ratios as high as 45 occur under high swirl conditions. However it was not possible to find a predictive model which could explain the turbulent flame speed in terms of engine design variables.
Technical Paper

Parametric Investigations into Combustion of Seed Oils in a Diesel Engine

A thermodynamic model has been employed to study the effect of changing injection timing, spray angle, fuel density, fuel viscosity, chemical reaction rate constants and air entrainment on the combustion performance of seed oils and their methyl esters in an open chamber diesel engine. It is shown that the most important valuables affecting the performance are fuel density and fuel viscosity. It is deduced that modification of these physical properties can lead to substantial improvement in the combustion performance of the seed oils.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Trace Knock in a Modern SI Engine Fuelled by Ethanol/Gasoline Blends

This paper presents a numerical study of trace knocking combustion of ethanol/gasoline blends in a modern, single cylinder SI engine. Results are compared to experimental data from a prior, published work [1]. The engine is modeled using GT-Power and a two-zone combustion model containing detailed kinetic models. The two zone model uses a gasoline surrogate model [2] combined with a sub-model for nitric oxide (NO) [3] to simulate end-gas autoignition. Upstream, pre-vaporized fuel injection (UFI) and direct injection (DI) are modeled and compared to characterize ethanol's low autoignition reactivity and high charge cooling effects. Three ethanol/gasoline blends are studied: E0, E20, and E50. The modeled and experimental results demonstrate some systematic differences in the spark timing for trace knock across all three fuels, but the relative trends with engine load and ethanol content are consistent. Possible reasons causing the differences are discussed.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging for the Fuel Efficient Urban Car

The arguments are given for the use of a 1.3 litre turbocharged spark ignition engine as a substitute for a 2 litre normally aspirated engine for late-80's compact cars. Descriptions of the three stages leading to an optimised engine-turbocharger package are described, together with details of the prototype TC engine manufacture and testing including supercharger tests to define operating limits. An outline of the optimising computer program is given, together with examples of computed camshaft designs giving significantly improved performance at low engine speeds. Some experimental results are given, including those of in-car testing which showed fuel consumption reductions of 12-22% over urban driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging for Fuel Efficiency

The arguments are given for the application of a 1.3 litre turbocharged spark ignition engine, as a substitute for a 2 litre normally aspirated engine as the power plant for a compact-sized car in the late 80’s. Three stages of the project leading to an optimised engine-turbocharger package are outlined. Achievement of Stage 1, leading to evaluation of a non-optimised configuration, will be reported. Description includes the use of a separately driven supercharger to define operating limits in the experimental variable matrix comprising compression ratio, boost pressure, EGR rate and spark retard at the knock limit. Computer programs for the optimising stages of the project are outlined. The current status of the project is reported, where, even at this early stage, fuel consumption reductions of 11-22% have been achieved under simulated urban driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Engine Gas Exchange, Combustion and Heat Transfer during Warm-Up

This paper presents experimental and computational results obtained on an in line, six cylinder, naturally aspirated, gasoline engine. Steady state measurements were first collected for a wide range of cam and spark timings versus throttle position and engine speed at part and full load. Simulations were performed by using an engine thermo-fluid model. The model was validated with measured steady state air and fuel flow rates and indicated and brake mean effective pressures. The model provides satisfactory accuracy and demonstrates the ability of the approach to produce fairly accurate steady state maps of BMEP and BSFC. However, results show that three major areas still need development especially at low loads, namely combustion, heat transfer and friction modeling, impacting respectively on IMEP and FMEP computations. Satisfactory measurement of small IMEP and derivation of FMEP at low loads is also a major issue.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Charge Composition of SI Engine Lean Limits

In this paper the experimental performance of the lean limits is examined for two different types of engines the first a dedicated LPG high compression ratio 2-valve per cylinder engine (Ford of Australia MY 2001 AU Falcon) and the second a gasoline moderate compression 4-valve per cylinder variant of the same engine (Ford of Australia MY 2006 BF Falcon). The in-cylinder composition at the lean limit over a range of steady state operating conditions is estimated using a quasi-dimensional model. This makes it possible to take into account the effects of both residual fraction and fresh charge diluents (EGR and excess air) that allow the exploration of a modeled lean limit performance [1, 2]. The results are compared to the predictions from a model for combustion variability applied to the quasi-dimensional model operating in optimization mode.
Technical Paper

The Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (ALSI) Engine – Its Performance and Emissions

This paper is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is an evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean mixture shift of more than one unit in lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The capability of an ultra lean burn spark ignition engine is described. The concept is operation at air-fuel ratios similar to the diesel engine but with essentially homogenous charge, although some stratification may be desirable. To achieve high thermal efficiency this engine has optimized compression ratio but with variable valve timing which enables reduction in the effective compression ratio when desirable.
Technical Paper

Top Land Crevice and Piston Deflection Effects on Combustion in a High Speed Rotary Valve Engine

The Bishop Rotary Valve (BRV) has the opportunity for greater breathing capacity than conventional poppet valve engines. However the combustion chamber shape is different from conventional engine with no opportunity for a central spark plug. This paper reports the development of a combustion analysis and design model using KIVA-3V code to locate the ignition centers and to perform sensitivity analysis to several design variables. Central to the use of the model was the tuning of the laminar Arrhenius model constants to match the experimental pressure data over the speed range 13000-20000 rpm. Piston ring crevices lands and valve crevices is shown to be an important development area and connecting rod piston stretch has also been accommodated in the modeling. For the proposed comparison, a conventional 4 valve per cylinder poppet valve engine of nearly equal IMEP has been simulated with GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

Changes to Fim-Motogp Rules to Reduce Costs and Make Racing More Directly Relevant to Road Motorcycle Development

The specific power densities and therefore the level of sophistication and costs of FIM-MOTOGP engines 800 cm3 in capacity have reached levels similar to those of the traditionally much more expensive FIA-Formula One engines and some racing developments have no application at all in the development of production bikes. The aim of the paper is therefore to review FIM-MOTOGP engine rules and make recommendations that could reduce costs and make racing more directly relevant to the development of production bikes while enhancing the significant interest in technical innovation by the sports' fans.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Pfi and Di Superbike Engines

Gasoline Direct Injection (DI) is a technique that was successful in motor sports several decades ago and is now relatively popular in passenger car applications only. DI gasoline fuel injectors have been recently improved considerably, with much higher fuel flow rates and much finer atomization enabled by the advances in fuel pressure and needle actuation. These improved injector performance and the general interest in reducing fuel consumption also in motor sports have made this option interesting again. This paper compares Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and DI of gasoline fuel in a high performance, four cylinder spark ignition engine for super bike racing. Computations are performed with a code for gas exchange, heat transfer and combustion, simulating turbulent combustion and knock.
Technical Paper

Lean Burn Performance of a Natural Gas Fuelled, Port Injected, Spark Ignition Engine

This paper presents a study of the performance of a lean burn, natural gas-fuelled, naturally aspirated, spark ignition engine for an E class vehicle. Engine performance and exhaust emissions (NO, CO, and UHC) data are first discussed. An energy balance of the engine operating at different loads and air-fuel ratios is then presented, and used to explain why engine efficiency varies with air-fuel ratio. Finally, the hot start drive cycle CO2e (CO2 equivalent) emissions are estimated for a vehicle with this engine. This shows a potential for significant reduction in vehicle greenhouse gas emissions compared to an equivalent gasoline-fuelled vehicle.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Port Fuel Injected, Spark Ignition Engine Optimised for Hydrogen Fuel

This paper presents a study of the performance of a 6-cylinder, spark-ignited, port-fuel-injected, production engine modified for hydrogen fueling. The engine modifications include turbo-charging, multiple fuel injectors per port and charge-dilution control techniques. Pumping losses are reduced through ultra-lean burn and throttle-less operation alongside high charge dilution ratio control achieved by twin independent variable cam timing without external EGR. Lean-burn combustion, engine-out emissions and brake thermal efficiency results are examined in detail. In particular, low NO emissions and brake thermal efficiencies near 38% are observed experimentally at the same operating conditions. The former is explained in terms of the usual thermal NOx pathway. Usage of throttle position, injection timings and cam timings for avoiding preignition and knock over the entire engine map are also discussed.