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Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Computational Process for Pass-By Noise Simulation

2001-04-30
2001-01-1561
The Indirect Boundary Element Analysis is employed for developing a computational pass-by noise simulation capability. An inverse analysis algorithm is developed in order to generate the definition of the main noise sources in the numerical model. The individual source models are combined for developing a system model for pass-by noise simulation. The developed numerical techniques are validated through comparison between numerical results and test data for component level and system level analyses. Specifically, the source definition capability is validated by comparing the actual and the computationally reconstructed acoustic field for an engine intake manifold. The overall pass-by noise simulation capability is validated by computing the maximum overall sound pressure level for a vehicle under two separate driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Analysis for the Performance Characteristics of Engine Bearings due to Variability in Bearing Properties

2003-05-05
2003-01-1733
This paper presents the development of surrogate models (metamodels) for evaluating the bearing performance in an internal combustion engine without performing time consuming analyses. The metamodels are developed based on results from actual simulation solvers computed at a limited number of sample points, which sample the design space. A finite difference bearing solver is employed in this paper for generating information necessary to construct the metamodels. An optimal symmetric Latin hypercube algorithm is utilized for identifying the sampling points based on the number and the range of the variables that are considered to vary in the design space. The development of the metamodels is validated by comparing results from the metamodels with results from the actual bearing performance solver over a large number of evaluation points. Once the metamodels are established they are employed for performing probabilistic analyses.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Engine Block and a Rotating Crankshaft Coupled Through Elastohydrodynamic Bearings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1724
A comprehensive formulation is presented for the dynamics of a rotating flexible crankshaft coupled with the dynamics of an engine block through a finite difference elastohydrodynamic main bearing lubrication algorithm. The coupling is based on detailed equilibrium conditions at the bearings. The component mode synthesis is employed for modeling the crankshaft and block dynamic behavior. A specialized algorithm for coupling the rigid and flexible body dynamics of the crankshaft within the framework of the component mode synthesis has been developed. A finite difference lubrication algorithm is used for computing the oil film elastohydrodynamic characteristics. A computationally accurate and efficient mapping algorithm has been developed for transferring information between a high - density computational grid for the elastohydrodynamic bearing solver and a low - density structural grid utilized in computing the crankshaft and block structural dynamic response.
Technical Paper

Oil Film Dynamic Characteristics for Journal Bearing Elastohydrodynamic Analysis Based on a Finite Difference Formulation

2003-05-05
2003-01-1669
A fast and accurate journal bearing elastohydrodynamic analysis is presented based on a finite difference formulation. The governing equations for the oil film pressure, stiffness and damping are solved using a finite difference approach. The oil film domain is discretized using a rectangular two-dimensional finite difference mesh. In this new formulation, it is not necessary to generate a global fluidity matrix similar to a finite element based solution. The finite difference equations are solved using a successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm. The concept of “Influence Zone,” for computing the dynamic characteristics is introduced. The SOR algorithm and the “Influence Zone” concept significantly improve the computational efficiency without loss of accuracy. The new algorithms are validated with numerical results from the literature and their numerical efficiency is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1072
Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Heat Release Rate Analysis of a Diesel Engine Operating Under Steady State Conditions

1997-02-24
970889
An experimental heat release rate analysis was conducted on a six cylinder, 12.7 liter Detroit Diesel Series 60 turbocharged engine operating under steady state conditions. The overall chemical, or gross, rate of heat release and the net apparent rate of heat release were determined from experimental measurements. The gross, time averaged, heat release rate was determined by two separate concepts/methods using exhaust gas concentration measurements from the Nicolet Rega 7000 Real Time Exhaust Gas Analyzer and the measured exhaust gas flow rate. The net apparent rate of heat release was determined from the in-cylinder pressure measurements for each of the six cylinders, averaged over 80 cycles. These pressure measurements were obtained using a VXI based Tektronix data acquisition system and LabVIEW software. A computer algorithm then computed the net apparent rate of heat release from the averaged in-cylinder pressure measurements.
Technical Paper

Modal Content of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Block Vibration

1997-05-20
971948
High-fidelity overall vehicle simulations require efficient computational routines for the various vehicle subsystems. Typically, these simulations blend theoretical dynamic system models with empirical results to produce computer models which execute efficiently. Provided that the internal combustion engine is a dominant source of vehicle vibration, knowledge of its dynamic characteristics throughout its operating envelope is essential to effectively predict vehicle response. The present experimental study was undertaken to determine the rigid body modal content of engine block vibration of a modern, heavy-duty Diesel engine. Experiments were conducted on an in-line six-cylinder Diesel engine (nominally rated at 470 BHP) which is used in both commercial Class-VIII trucks, and on/off-road military applications. The engine was mounted on multi-axis force transducers in a dynamometer test cell in the standard three-point configuration.
Technical Paper

Influence of Tensioner Friction on Accessory Drive Dynamics

1997-05-20
971962
Belt drives have long been utilized in engine applications to power accessories such as alternators, pumps, compressors and fans. The first belt drives consisted of one or more V-belts powering fixed-centered pulleys and were pre-tensioned by statically adjusting the pulley center separation distances. In recent years, such drives have been replaced by a single, flat, ‘serpentine belt’ tensioned by an ‘automatic tensioner.’ The automatic tensioner consists of a spring-loaded, dry friction damped, tensioner arm that contacts the belt through an idler pulley. The tensioner's major function is to maintain constant belt tension in the presence of changing engine speeds and accessory loads. The engine crankshaft supplies both the requisite power to drive the accessories as well as the (unwanted) dynamic excitation that can adversely affect the accessories and the noise and vibration performance of the belt.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuel Consumption

1997-02-24
971142
Due to their inherent high efficiency and the ease of starting once the engine is hot, turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engines have emerged as one of the contending powerplants for PNGV hybrid vehicles. The interest in applying diesel engines in hybrid vehicles has prompted the modeling of direct injection diesel engine fuel consumption. The empirical equation developed in this study, which models engine friction and indicated efficiency as functions of engine operating speed and load, shows excellent agreement with test data gathered from public sources. The engine speed dependence of the friction and indicated efficiency are determined by fitting available data. Several assumed load dependences are considered. (If public data were available on engine cylinder pressure by crank angle as a function of engine speed and load, the load dependence could be determined empirically.)
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Analysis for a Hybrid Concept Car Based on a Buffered Fuel-Engine Operating at an Optimal Point

1995-02-01
950958
A hybrid car is conceptually described and analyzed which meets the goal of a factor of three improvement in fuel economy set by the government-industry collaboration, Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, announced Sept. 29, 1993. This car combines an internal combustion engine with a low-energy, but high-power capacity, storage unit, such as a capacitor or flywheel. The storage capacity is one-half kWh. All energy requirements are ultimately met from the fuel tank. Essentially all the performance achievements of current conventional cars are met by this hybrid. Two versions of the hybrid are considered: one in which the vehicle loads are the same as those of the average 1993 car, but the drive train is replaced with a hybrid system, and one, where, in addition, the vehicle loads are reduced, at fixed performance and interior volume, to levels slightly beyond the best achievements in current production vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Potential of the Variable Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970067
A comprehensive quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the spark-ignition (SI) engine was used to explore part-load, fuel economy benefits of the Variable Stroke Engine (VSE) compared to the conventional throttled engine. First it was shown that varying stroke can replace conventional throttling to control engine load, without changing the engine characteristics. Subsequently, the effects of varying stroke on turbulence, burn rate, heat transfer, and pumping and friction losses were revealed. Finally these relationships were used to explain the behavior of the VSE as stroke is reduced. Under part load operation, it was shown that the VSE concept can improve brake specific fuel consumption by 18% to 21% for speeds ranging from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Further, at part load, NOx was reduced by up to 33%. Overall, this study provides insight into changes in processes within and outside the combustion chamber that cause the benefits and limitations of the VSE concept.
Technical Paper

Balancing IC Engine Torque Via Individual Cylinder Spark Control

1997-02-24
970026
This paper presents a method of balancing the cylinder to cylinder torque fluctuation of an idling engine by controlling the individual spark timing. This method has the capability to compensate for individual fuel/air imbalance that might occur for example due to miscalibration of a fuel injector. The method is based upon noncontacting crankshaft angular speed flucuations and upon a control system that regulates individual spark timing in response to imbalance in that speed variation. The theory of the method is explained and experimental verification of the method is presented for a 4 cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

Cavitation During Head Impact

1997-02-24
970390
The effects of stress in brain material was investigated with experimental and computational idealizations of the head. A water-filled cylinder impacted by a free traveling mass serves to give insight into what could happen to the brain during impact. Under an impact of sufficient velocity, cavitation can occur on the cylinder boundary opposite impact. Limited internal vaporization of the fluid may also occur during severe impact events. Cavitation occurred in these experiments at accelerations greater than 150 g's. Head forms of different sizing will experience an acceleration magnitude inversely proportional to the size difference to produce a similar pressure/cavitation response.
Technical Paper

A Global Model for Steady State and Transient S.I. Engine Heat Transfer Studies

1996-02-01
960073
A global, systems-level model which characterizes the thermal behavior of internal combustion engines is described in this paper. Based on resistor-capacitor thermal networks, either steady-state or transient thermal simulations can be performed. A two-zone, quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation is used to determine in-cylinder gas temperature and convection coefficients. Engine heat fluxes and component temperatures can subsequently be predicted from specification of general engine dimensions, materials, and operating conditions. Emphasis has been placed on minimizing the number of model inputs and keeping them as simple as possible to make the model practical and useful as an early design tool. The success of the global model depends on properly scaling the general engine inputs to accurately model engine heat flow paths across families of engine designs. The development and validation of suitable, scalable submodels is described in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

Measured Emissions of Small Engines under Steady State and Transient Operation

1994-09-01
941806
The exhaust emissions of off-road and utility engines have recently come under increasingly thorough scrutiny and are now becoming the subject of federal regulations. While the most straightforward emissions guidelines relate to steady-state engine performance, it is well known that duty cycles of many small engines have a transient content and that its significance can vary strongly from application to application. Hence, it is important to examine how measured emissions change when the transient content of a test cycle is varied, and what kinds of steady-state and transient test cycles might realistically imitate operational conditions. These questions have been addressed in an experimental study in which several small two- and four-stroke engines have been tested under steady state and transient cycles. The same tests were also carried out when these engines had been adjusted to operate at leaner air-fuel ratios, as might be required by forthcoming regulations.
Technical Paper

Road Tests of a Misfire Detection System

1994-03-01
940975
This paper presents the theory and experimental performance of a system for detecting engine misfires in automobiles. The method is potentially suitable for meeting the California Air Resources Board (CARB) requirements under On Board Diagnostics II (OBDII) rules. The instrumentation for the present method measures (noncontacting) crankshaft instantaneous angular speed. Highly efficient signal processing algorithms permit detection of each individual misfire. The performance of the present method is expressed in terms of error rates made in detecting individual misfires. Normal operating conditions yield error rates under 10-4. Under worst case conditions consisting of light load, high RPM and rough roads with the torque converter in lockup are under 10-3.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Natural Gas Ignition Under Compression Ignition Conditions Using Detailed Chemistry

1998-02-23
980136
A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, consisting of 22 species and 104 elementary reactions, has been used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional reactive flow code KIVA-3 to study autoignition of natural gas injected under compression ignition conditions. Calculations for three different blends of natural gas are performed on a three-dimensional computational grid by modeling both the injection and ignition processes. Ignition delay predictions at pressures and temperatures typical of top-dead-center conditions in compression ignition engines compare well with the measurements of Naber et al. [1] in a combustion bomb. Two different criteria, based on pressure rise and mass of fuel burned, are used to detect the onset of ignition. Parametric studies are conducted to show the effect of additives like ethane and hydrogen peroxide in increasing the fuel consumption rate.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Location of Knock Initiation on Heat Flux Into an SI Combustion Chamber

1997-10-01
972935
A study has been conducted in order to investigate the effect of the location of knock initiation on heat flux in a Spark-Ignition (SI) combustion chamber. Heat flux measurements were taken on the piston and cylinder head under different knock intensity levels, induced by advancing the spark timing. Tests were performed with two engine configurations, the first with the spark-plug located on the rear side of the chamber and the other having a second non-firing spark-plug placed at the front side of the chamber. The presence of the non-firing spark-plug consistently shifted the location of autoignition initiation from the surface of the piston to its vicinity, without causing a noticeable increase in knock intensity. By localizing the initiation of knock, changes induced in the secondary flame propagation pattern affected both the magnitude and the rate of change of peak heat flux under heavy knock.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy and Power Benefits of Cetane-Improved Fuels in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

1997-10-01
972900
A program to explore the effects of natural and additive-derived cetane on various aspects of diesel performance and combustion has been carried out. Procedures have been developed to measure diesel engine fuel consumption and power to a high degree of precision. These methods have been used to measure fuel consumption and power in three heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engines. The fuel matrix consisted of three commercial fuels of cetane number (CN) of 40-42, the same fuels raised to CN 48-50 with a cetane improver additive, and three commercial fuels of base CN 47-50. The engines came from three different U.S. manufacturers and were of three different model years and emissions configurations. Both fuel economy and power were found to be significantly higher for the cetane-improved fuels than for the naturally high cetane fuels. These performance advantages derive mainly from the higher volumetric heat content inherent to the cetane-improved fuels.
Technical Paper

Piston Heat Transfer Measurements Under Varying Knock Intensity in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-05-01
971667
Piston heat transfer measurements were taken under varying knock intensity in a modern spark-ignition engine combustion chamber. For a range of knocking spark timings, two knock intensity levels were obtained by using a high (80°C) and a low (50°C) cylinder head coolant temperature. Data were taken with a central and a side spark plug configuration. When the spark-plug was placed at the center of the combustion chamber, a linear variation of peak heat flux with knock intensity was found in the end-gas region. Very large changes in peak heat flux (on the order of 100%) occurred at probes whose relative location with respect to the end gas zone changed from being within (80°C coolant case) to being outside the zone (50°C coolant case). With side spark-plug, distinct differences in peak heat flux occurred at all probes and under all knock intensities, but the correlation between knock intensity and heat flux was not linear.
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