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Technical Paper


THIS paper reports work begun in 1935 at the instigation of the Murray Corp. of America. Methods used in studying the relations between the automobile seat cushion and its function in transporting passengers with greater comfort and less fatigue are described. Constructed for this purpose was a piece of apparatus called the Universal Test Seat, whose dimensions were completely adjustable with arrangements to vary the distribution of the supporting pressure in any manner which seemed most comfortable to the passenger. The authors describe tests made by use of this apparatus, present summaries of some of the results recorded and conclude that, to give the passenger the maximum comfort and least fatigue, the following mechanical objectives should be attained by the cushion: 1. To support the passenger over a large area to get the smallest unit pressure on the flesh; 2.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Tire Shear Forces

Based on a review of existing theoretical and empirical knowledge of the mechanics of pneumatic tires and tire/vehicle systems, a requirement is defined for experimental data relating the shear forces developed at the tire-road interface to the kinematic variables of influence. Test equipment to satisfy this requirement consists of two complementary pieces of apparatus: a laboratory facility which is a modified version of the B. F. Goodrich flat-bed tester, and a mobile device which consists of a three-component (Fx, Fy, Mz) strain-gage dynamometer mounted on a heavy duty highway tractor. The latter provides a capability for testing at speeds up to 70 mph, normal loads up to 2000 lb, tire sideslip angles up to 18 deg, and steady state or programmed variations in longitudinal tire slip from fully locked (100% slip) to 30% overdriven (-30% slip). Representative samples of tire mechanics data obtained using the new equipment are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Cord Loads in Tires on Roadwheel and Highway

Strain gage instrumented transducers were used to measure the cord loads at a number of locations in several different automotive tires loaded against both flat and cylindrical road wheel surfaces. The two basic types of cord load fluctuation encountered in all automobile tires have been identified from these measurements, and the most severe location for cord load fluctuations has been closely bracketed. By these measurements, it has been possible to show that for each tire definite relations exist between the cord loads induced while running on a cylindrical drum and while running on a flat surface. The maximum cord load fluctuations in a tire are the same for the NBS roadwheel and flat surface when the tire is loaded against the roadwheel with a load of between 85 and 90% of that used on the flat surface.
Technical Paper

Mixture Motion - Its Effect on Pressure Rise in a Combustion Bomb: A New Look at Cyclic Variation

Cycle-to-cycle variation of pressure is a common problem in all spark-ignition engines. To examine the suspected influence of mixture-motion on this variation, a study was performed in a constant volume cylindrical bomb in which a jet of propane-air mixture was directed at the initial flame kernel. The rate of pressure rise of the jet-influenced combustion was compared to the rate for combustion in a quiescent mixture. The flame area, obtained using a spark schlieren photographic technique, and the calculated combustion rate were correlated with the pressure rate. The major results were: the rate of pressure rise increased approximately linearly with mixture jet velocity; and the width of the mixture-jet had an effect on the rate of pressure rise. A jet profile width slightly greather than the spark-gap produced the highest rate of pressure rise.
Technical Paper

Simulation for the Response of a Structure Subjected to a Load from an Explosion

Utilizing simulation technology is important for designing a structure with increased survivability to a load from an explosion. The pressure wave from the blast and the fragments hitting the structure must be simulated in such an analysis. Commercial software can be utilized through the development of appropriate interfaces for performing such computations. In this paper an approach is presented for combining commercially available Eulerian and Lagrangian solvers for performing blast event simulations. A capability has been developed for automatically creating the Eulerian finite element given the finite element model for the structure. The effect of moisture in the soil properties is considered during the generation of the soil - explosive - air model used by the Eulerian solver. Tracers are defined in the Eulerian model for all structural finite elements which are on the outer part of the structure and are subjected to the load from the blast.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvement During Cold Start Using Recycled Exhaust Heat and Electrical Energy for Engine Oil and ATF Warm-Up

A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effect of changing engine oil and automatic transmission fluid (ATF) temperatures on the fuel economy during warm-up period. The study also evaluates several fuel economy improving devices that reduce the warm-up period by utilizing recycled exhaust heat or an electric heater. A computer simulation model has been developed using a multi-domain 1-D commercial software and calibrated using test data from a passenger vehicle equipped with a 2.4 / 4-cylinder engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission. The model consists of sub-models for driver, vehicle, engine, automatic transmission, cooling system, engine oil circuit, ATF circuit, and electrical system. The model has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to the changing engine oil and ATF temperatures during the cold start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle that is used for the fuel economy evaluation.
Journal Article

In-Vehicle Driver State Detection Using TIP-II

A transportable instrumentation package to collect driver, vehicle and environmental data is described. This system is an improvement on an earlier system and is called TIP-II [13]. Two new modules were designed and added to the original system: a new and improved physiological signal module (PH-M) replaced the original physiological signals module in TIP, and a new hand pressure on steering wheel module (HP-M) was added. This paper reports on exploratory tests with TIP-II. Driving data were collected from ten driver participants. Correlations between On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD), video data, physiological data and specific driver behavior such as lane departure and car following were investigated. Initial analysis suggested that hand pressure, skin conductance level, and respiration rate were key indicators of lane departure lateral displacement and velocity, immediately preceding lane departure; heart rate and inter-beat interval were affected during lane changes.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Behavior During Real-World 24-Hour Missions

This paper proposes a simulation based methodology to assess plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) behavior over 24-hour periods. Several representative 24-hour missions comprise naturalistic cycle data and information about vehicle resting time. The data were acquired during Filed Operational Tests (FOT) of a fleet of passenger vehicles carried out by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) for safety research. Then, PHEV behavior is investigated using a simulation with two different charging scenarios: (1) Charging overnight; (2) Charging whenever possible. Charging/discharging patterns of the battery as well as trends of charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes at each scenario were assessed. Series PHEV simulation is generated using Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and in-house Matlab codes.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Real-World Driving Conditions

This paper proposes a framework to perform design optimization of a series PHEV and investigates the impact of using real-world driving inputs on final design. Real-World driving is characterized from a database of naturalistic driving generated in Field Operational Tests. The procedure utilizes Markov chains to generate synthetic drive cycles representative of real-world driving. Subsequently, PHEV optimization is performed in two steps. First the optimal battery and motor sizes to most efficiently achieve a desired All Electric Range (AER) are determined. A synthetic cycle representative of driving over a given range is used for function evaluations. Then, the optimal engine size is obtained by considering fuel economy in the charge sustaining (CS) mode. The higher power/energy demands of real-world cycles lead to PHEV designs with substantially larger batteries and engines than those developed using repetitions of the federal urban cycle (UDDS).
Technical Paper

Worst Case Scenarios Generation and Its Application on Driving

The current test methods are insufficient to evaluate and ensure the safety and reliability of vehicle system for all possible dynamic situations including the worst cases such as rollover, spin-out and so on. Although the known NHTSA J-turn and Fish-hook steering maneuvers are applied for the vehicle performance assessment, they are not enough to predict other possible worst case scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to search for the various worst cases including the existing severe steering maneuvers. This paper includes the procedure to search for other useful worst case based upon the existing worst case scenarios in terms of rollover and its application in simulation basis. The human steering angle is selected as a design variable and optimized to maximize the index function to be expressed in terms of vehicle roll angle. The obtained scenarios were enough to generate the worse cases than NHTSA ones.
Technical Paper

A Test Method for Quantifying Residual Stress Due to Heat Treatment in Metals

Quantification of residual stresses is an important engineering problem impacting manufacturabilty and durability of metallic components. An area of particular concern is residual stresses that can develop during heat treatment of metallic components. Many heat treatments, especially in heat treatable cast aluminum alloys, involve a water-quenching step immediately after a solution-treatment cycle. This rapid water quench has the potential to induce high residual stresses in regions of the castings that experience large thermal gradients. These stresses may be partially relaxed during the aging portion of the heat treatment. The goal of this research was to develop a test sample and quench technique to quantify the stresses created by steep thermal gradients during rapid quenching of cast aluminum. The development and relaxation of residual stresses during the aging cycle was studied experimentally with the use of strain gauges.
Journal Article

Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling

The buildup of deposits in EGR coolers causes significant degradation in heat transfer performance, often on the order of 20-30%. Deposits also increase pressure drop across coolers and thus may degrade engine efficiency under some operating conditions. It is unlikely that EGR cooler deposits can be prevented from forming when soot and HC are present. The presence of cooled surfaces will cause thermophoretic soot deposition and condensation of HC and acids. While this can be affected by engine calibration, it probably cannot be eliminated as long as cooled EGR is required for emission control. It is generally felt that “dry fluffy” soot is less likely to cause major fouling than “heavy wet” soot. An oxidation catalyst in the EGR line can remove HC and has been shown to reduce fouling in some applications. The combination of an oxidation catalyst and a wall-flow filter largely eliminates fouling. Various EGR cooler designs affect details of deposit formation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Transient Heat Losses to Tank Wall During the Inflator Tank Test

A series of inflator tank tests was carried out to determine the amount of transient heat losses to the tank wall during these tests. The time history data of tank wall temperature, and tank interior gas temperature and pressure, were measured. The tank wall temperature data were analyzed using an inverse heat conduction method to generate the transient heat loss fluxes from the tank gas to the tank wall. The validity of the results are discussed along with the physical reasoning and experimental observations. This is the first part of an effort in a research project to develop a comprehensive heat transfer model to predict the transient heat losses to the tank wall during the inflator tank test.
Technical Paper

Late-Cycle Turbulence Generation in Swirl-Supported, Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Cycle-resolved analysis of velocity data obtained in the re-entrant bowl of a fired high-;speed, direct-injection diesel engine, demonstrates an unambiguous, approximately 100% increase in late-cycle turbulence levels over the levels measured during motored operation. Model predictions of the flow field, obtained employing RNG k-ε turbulence modeling in KIVA-3V, do not capture this increased turbulence. A combined experimental and computational approach is taken to identify the source of this turbulence. The results indicate that the dominant source of the increased turbulence is associated with the formation of an unstable distribution of mean angular momentum, characterized by a negative radial gradient. The importance of this source of flow turbulence has not previously been recognized for engine flows. The enhanced late-cycle turbulence is found to be very sensitive to the flow swirl level.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Thermal Shock in a Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper

One-Dimensional Transient Dynamics of Fuel Evaporation and Diffusion in Induction Systems

Engine performance under transients is greatly affected by the fuel behavior in the induction systems. To better understand the fuel behavior, a computer model has been developed to study the one-dimensional coupled heat and mass transfer processes occurring during the transient evaporation of liquid fuel from a heated surface into stagnant air. The energy and mass diffusion equations are solved simultaneously to yield the transient temperatures and species concentrations using a modified finite difference technique. The numerical technique is capable of solving the coupled equations while simultaneously tracking the movement of the evaporation interface. Evaporation results are presented for various initial film thicknesses representing typical puddle thicknesses for multi-point fuel injection systems using heptane, octane, and nonane pure hydrocarbon fuels.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Oil Film Dynamic Characteristics for Journal Bearing Elastohydrodynamic Analysis Based on a Finite Difference Formulation

A fast and accurate journal bearing elastohydrodynamic analysis is presented based on a finite difference formulation. The governing equations for the oil film pressure, stiffness and damping are solved using a finite difference approach. The oil film domain is discretized using a rectangular two-dimensional finite difference mesh. In this new formulation, it is not necessary to generate a global fluidity matrix similar to a finite element based solution. The finite difference equations are solved using a successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm. The concept of “Influence Zone,” for computing the dynamic characteristics is introduced. The SOR algorithm and the “Influence Zone” concept significantly improve the computational efficiency without loss of accuracy. The new algorithms are validated with numerical results from the literature and their numerical efficiency is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Near Wake of a Pick-up Truck

The results of an experimental investigation of the flow over a pickup truck are presented. The main objectives of the study are to gain a better understanding of the flow structure in near wake region, and to obtain a detailed quantitative data set for validation of numerical simulations of this flow. Experiments were conducted at moderate Reynolds numbers (∼3×105) in the open return tunnel at the University of Michigan. Measured quantities include: the mean pressure on the symmetry plane, unsteady pressure in the bed, and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the flow in the near wake. The unsteady pressure results show that pressure fluctuations in the forward section of the bed are small and increase significantly at the edge of the tailgate. Pressure fluctuation spectra at the edge of the tailgate show a spectral peak at a Strouhal number of 0.07 and large energy content at very low frequency.