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Technical Paper

Oil Film Dynamic Characteristics for Journal Bearing Elastohydrodynamic Analysis Based on a Finite Difference Formulation

2003-05-05
2003-01-1669
A fast and accurate journal bearing elastohydrodynamic analysis is presented based on a finite difference formulation. The governing equations for the oil film pressure, stiffness and damping are solved using a finite difference approach. The oil film domain is discretized using a rectangular two-dimensional finite difference mesh. In this new formulation, it is not necessary to generate a global fluidity matrix similar to a finite element based solution. The finite difference equations are solved using a successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm. The concept of “Influence Zone,” for computing the dynamic characteristics is introduced. The SOR algorithm and the “Influence Zone” concept significantly improve the computational efficiency without loss of accuracy. The new algorithms are validated with numerical results from the literature and their numerical efficiency is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Critical Issues in Development of Open Architecture Controllers

1996-05-01
961655
Open-Architecture Control Systems allow easy integration of control system that their elements supplied by multiple vendors. The driver behind open architecture is obtaining enhanced system performance at affordable cost. The University of Michigan started a project on open-architecture in 1988. This paper offers a short description of the project, and summarizes the impact of this new technology on the equipment supplier industry (control vendors and machine builders) and the end users of this technology.
Technical Paper

A Network-Based Expert System for Comparative Analysis of Pulley Assembly Methods

1990-02-01
900818
The pulleys employed in automotive accessory drive systems very often consist of a two piece assembly; a multitude of fastening techniques are used in completing the assembly. There are numerous assembly methods and a variety of distinct pulley configurations dictated by the various automobile manufacturers in accordance with individual accessory drive needs. An expert system is being developed to evaluate the merit of multiple assembly alternatives for a specific pulley application. The expert system provides a consistent evaluation tool for assembly alternatives, balancing the influence of product cost, strength and quality considerations. The knowledge-based system is implemented in an expert system shell called AGNESS (A Generalized Network-based Expert System Shell). The expert system judges the acceptability of various pulley assembly techniques, assigning a high “merit value” to the better designs and proportionately lower values to less desirable designs.
Technical Paper

Vibratory Loosening of Bolts

1966-02-01
660432
In this paper, the effects of fluctuating torque on loosening of a tightly seated bolt are investigated. Tests over a wide range of bolt stresses and loosening torques are reported and equipment developed for determination of such effects is described. It is shown that a definite functional relationship exists between the stress on a typical bolt, the oscillatory loosening torque that is applied, and the number of cycles before the bolt becomes loose. The effects of these relationships follow a clearly defined law, although they are, of course, influenced by a number of additional variables.
Technical Paper

Airborne Laser Radar Investigations of Clear Air Turbulence

1966-02-01
660190
Conclusions based on the airborne experiments with laser radars are summarized in this paper. Details of the equipment and the flight procedures will be displayed during the oral presentation at the conference.
Technical Paper

Experience and Skill Predict Failure to Brake Errors: Further Validation of the Simulated Driving Assessment

2014-04-01
2014-01-0445
Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Yet, few simulator protocols have been validated for their ability to assess driving performance under conditions that result in actual collisions. This paper presents results from a new Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA), a 35- to-40-minute simulated assessment delivered on a Real-Time® simulator. The SDA was developed to represent typical scenarios in which teens crash, based on analyses from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). A new metric, failure to brake, was calculated for the 7 potential rear-end scenarios included in the SDA and examined according two constructs: experience and skill.
Technical Paper

NH3 Storage in Sample Lines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1586
Ammonia, often present in exhaust gas samples, is a polar molecule gas that interacts with walls of the gas sampling and analysis equipment resulting in delayed instrument response. A set of experiments quantified various materials and process parameters of a heated sample line system for ammonia (NH3) response using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Response attenuation rates are due to mixing and diffusion during transport as well as NH3 wall storage. Mixing/diffusion effects cause attenuation with a time constant 1-10 seconds. Wall storage attenuation has a time constant 10-200 seconds. The effects of sample line diameter and length, line temperature, line material, hydrated versus dry gas, and flow rate were examined. All of these factors are statistically significant to variation of at least one of the time constants. The NH3 storage on the sample system walls was calculated as a function of the experimental test as well.
Technical Paper

Toward a Science of Driving: Safety in Rules-Based versus Adaptive Self-Regulating Traffic Systems

2006-10-16
2006-21-0064
New technology emerges daily that enhances traffic and automotive systems. It challenges us to redefine safety in terms of achieving the system's overall goals at a minimal ‘cost’, i.e., loss of life and property. This redefinition requires that we develop the tools needed to understand driving as a decision making activity over a system consisting of driver, vehicle and infrastructure with an ever present and increasing flow of information between them. This even requires that we revisit the very notion of an accident. Loss of life and limb will increasingly be due dysfunctional decision-making, human and automated. This paper describes an approach to the study of driving as a system-based decision making and suggests an approach to the management of dysfunctional decisions. By making explicit, with the aid of game and systems theory, the role of information in driving we suggest a traffic-system based approach to behavioral constraints needed to ensure safety.
Technical Paper

Automotive Product Design and Development: Forecast and Analysis of the North American Auto Industry Trends Through 2007

1999-09-28
1999-01-3219
The paper presents a brief summary of results from a Delphi forecast focused on North American Auto industry philosophies, practices, and tools for various phases of the product- development process, and their impact on cost, quality, and design lead time. The forecasting technique is a systematic, iterative method of forecasting based upon the judgement of a panel composed of knowledgeable experts. The study provides a snapshot of current expectations for the product development process, including the use of computer aided design tools, design methodologies, strategies, tools, and design education/training. The paper highlights issues pertaining to product cycle time, organizational barriers, supplier's role and globalization challenges.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Model of Gait and Transition Stepping for Simulation of Industrial Workcell Tasks

2007-06-12
2007-01-2478
Industrial tasks performed by standing workers are among those most commonly simulated using digital human models. Workers often walk, turn, and take acyclic steps as they perform these tasks. Current h uman modeling tools lack the capability to simulate these whole body motions accurately. Most models simulate walking by replaying joint angle trajectories corresponding to a general gait pattern. Turning is simulated poorly if at all, and violations of kinematic constraints between the feet and ground are common. Moreover, current models do not accurately predict foot placement with respect to loads and other hand targets, diminishing the utility of the associated ergonomic analyses. A new approach to simulating stepping and walking in task-oriented activities is proposed. Foot placements and motions are predicted from operator and task characteristics using empirical models derived from laboratory data and validated using field data from an auto assembly plant.
Technical Paper

Design Kit for Accessory Drives (DKAD): Dynamic Analysis of Serpentine Belt Drives

2003-05-05
2003-01-1661
DKAD is an automated analysis tool for evaluating dynamic characteristics of accessory drives. Rotation response analysis predicts natural frequencies and effects of crankshaft excitation. Lateral response of each belt span shows the effect of pulley run-out and parametric excitation. DKAD systematically allows a user to define a design and its operating conditions and then performs a sequence of analysis to visualize the rotational and lateral responses. It also allows a user to quickly explore and assess alternative designs. Belt layout and associated parameters can be saved in templates for future reference.
Technical Paper

First Order Analysis for Automotive Body Structure Design-Part 2: Joint Analysis Considering Nonlinear Behavior

2004-03-08
2004-01-1659
We have developed new CAE tools in the concept design process based on First Order Analysis (FOA). Joints are often modeled by rotational spring elements. However, it is very difficult to obtain good accuracy. We think that one of the reasons is the influence of the nonlinear behavior due to local elastic buckling. Automotive body structures have the possibility of causing local buckling since they are constructed by thin walled cross sections. In this paper we focus on this behavior. First of all, we present the concept of joint analysis in FOA, using global-local analysis. After that, we research nonlinear behavior in order to construct an accurate joint reduced model. (1) The influence of local buckling is shown using uniform beams. (2) Stiffness decrease of joints due to a local buckling is shown. (3) The way of treating joint modeling considering nonlinear behavior is proposed.
Technical Paper

Microstructures and Failure Mechanisms of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 5754 Sheets

2005-04-11
2005-01-1256
Microstructures and failure mechanisms of spot friction welds (SFW) in aluminum 5754 lap-shear specimens were investigated. In order to study the effect of tool geometry on the joint strength of spot friction welds, a concave tool and a flat tool were used. In order to understand the effect of tool penetration depth on the joint strength, spot friction welds were prepared with two different penetration depths for each tool. The results indicated that the concave tool produced slightly higher joint strength than the flat tool. The joint strength did not change for the two depths for the flat tool whereas the joint strength slightly increases as the penetration depth increases for the concave tool. The experimental results show that the failure mechanism is necking and shearing for the spot friction welds made by both tools. The failure was initiated and fractured through the upper sheet under the shoulder indentation near the crack tip.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Seat Index Point Tool for Military Seats

2016-04-05
2016-01-0309
This study evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT) as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was fabricated based on the ISO specification and a custom back-angle measurement probe was designed and fitted to the SIPT. Comparisons between the two tools in a wide range of seating conditions showed that the mean SIP location was 5 mm aft of the H-point, with a standard deviation of 7.8 mm. Vertical location was not significantly different between the two tools (mean - 0.7 mm, sd 4.0 mm). A high correlation (r=0.9) was observed between the back angle measurements from the two tools. The SIPT was slightly more repeatable across installations and installers than the J826 manikin, with most of the discrepancy arising from situations with flat seat cushion angles and either unusually upright or reclined back angles that caused the J826 manikin to be unstable.
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