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Technical Paper

Probabilistic Analysis for the Performance Characteristics of Engine Bearings due to Variability in Bearing Properties

2003-05-05
2003-01-1733
This paper presents the development of surrogate models (metamodels) for evaluating the bearing performance in an internal combustion engine without performing time consuming analyses. The metamodels are developed based on results from actual simulation solvers computed at a limited number of sample points, which sample the design space. A finite difference bearing solver is employed in this paper for generating information necessary to construct the metamodels. An optimal symmetric Latin hypercube algorithm is utilized for identifying the sampling points based on the number and the range of the variables that are considered to vary in the design space. The development of the metamodels is validated by comparing results from the metamodels with results from the actual bearing performance solver over a large number of evaluation points. Once the metamodels are established they are employed for performing probabilistic analyses.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Engine Block and a Rotating Crankshaft Coupled Through Elastohydrodynamic Bearings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1724
A comprehensive formulation is presented for the dynamics of a rotating flexible crankshaft coupled with the dynamics of an engine block through a finite difference elastohydrodynamic main bearing lubrication algorithm. The coupling is based on detailed equilibrium conditions at the bearings. The component mode synthesis is employed for modeling the crankshaft and block dynamic behavior. A specialized algorithm for coupling the rigid and flexible body dynamics of the crankshaft within the framework of the component mode synthesis has been developed. A finite difference lubrication algorithm is used for computing the oil film elastohydrodynamic characteristics. A computationally accurate and efficient mapping algorithm has been developed for transferring information between a high - density computational grid for the elastohydrodynamic bearing solver and a low - density structural grid utilized in computing the crankshaft and block structural dynamic response.
Technical Paper

Oil Film Dynamic Characteristics for Journal Bearing Elastohydrodynamic Analysis Based on a Finite Difference Formulation

2003-05-05
2003-01-1669
A fast and accurate journal bearing elastohydrodynamic analysis is presented based on a finite difference formulation. The governing equations for the oil film pressure, stiffness and damping are solved using a finite difference approach. The oil film domain is discretized using a rectangular two-dimensional finite difference mesh. In this new formulation, it is not necessary to generate a global fluidity matrix similar to a finite element based solution. The finite difference equations are solved using a successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm. The concept of “Influence Zone,” for computing the dynamic characteristics is introduced. The SOR algorithm and the “Influence Zone” concept significantly improve the computational efficiency without loss of accuracy. The new algorithms are validated with numerical results from the literature and their numerical efficiency is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Influence of Tensioner Friction on Accessory Drive Dynamics

1997-05-20
971962
Belt drives have long been utilized in engine applications to power accessories such as alternators, pumps, compressors and fans. The first belt drives consisted of one or more V-belts powering fixed-centered pulleys and were pre-tensioned by statically adjusting the pulley center separation distances. In recent years, such drives have been replaced by a single, flat, ‘serpentine belt’ tensioned by an ‘automatic tensioner.’ The automatic tensioner consists of a spring-loaded, dry friction damped, tensioner arm that contacts the belt through an idler pulley. The tensioner's major function is to maintain constant belt tension in the presence of changing engine speeds and accessory loads. The engine crankshaft supplies both the requisite power to drive the accessories as well as the (unwanted) dynamic excitation that can adversely affect the accessories and the noise and vibration performance of the belt.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Lubricant/Main Shaft Interaction and Dryout in an Automatic Transmission Model

1998-05-04
981447
When unexpected integrated lubricant-related problems occur, for example, high-speed operating conditions, lubricants can be degraded and even fail to reach certain automatic transmission parts. Dryout of oil films means a serious lack of lubrication, which may damage the power transmission line and key parts. Dryout of ATF is analogous to that in forced convective boiling and condensation. It thus requires special efforts to determine the mechanics that induce such fluid transport phenomena. This paper presents an experimental investigation of lubricant activities in the main shaft. Dimensional analysis is applied, and flow maps of the air-oil flow and dryout regimes are constructed. Correlations closely agree with the data and reveal the possibility of dryout. Heat transfer effect is briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

Bolt-Load Retention and Creep of Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys

1997-02-24
970325
New high-temperature Mg alloys are being considered to replace 380 Al in transmission cases, wherein bolt-load retention, and creep, is of prime concern. One of these alloys is die cast AE42, which has much better creep properties than does AZ91D but is still not as creep resistant as 380 Al. It is thus important to investigate bolt-load retention and creep of AE42 as an initial step in assessing its suitability as a material for transmission housings. To that end, the bolt-load retention behavior of die-cast AE42, AZ91D and 380 Al have been examined using standard M10 bolts specially instrumented with stable high-temperature strain gages. The bolt-load retention test pieces were die cast in geometries approximating the flange and boss regions in typical bolted joints. Bolt-load retention properties were examined as a function of time (at least 100 hours), temperature (150 and 175 °C) and initial bolt preload (14 to 34 kN).
Technical Paper

A Knowledge Representation Scheme for Nondestructive Testing of Composite Components

1990-02-01
900070
This paper presents our efforts to formalize the knowledge domain of nondestructive quality control of automotive composite components with organic (resin) matrices and to develop a prototype knowledge-based system, called NICC for Nondestructive Inspection of Composite Components, to help in the quality assurance of individual components. Geometric and bonding characteristics of parts and assemblies are taken into account, as opposed to the better understood evaluation of test specimens. The reasoning process was divided in two stages: in the first stage all flaws that might be present in the given part are characterized; in the second stage appropriate nondestructive testing procedures are specified to detect each of the possible flaws. The use of nondestructive techniques in the inspection of composites is fairly recent and hence, the knowledge required to develop an expert system is still very scattered and not fully covered in the literature.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Control of Transient Flow in the Diesel Injection System Part II - Design Results of Controlled After-Injection

1973-02-01
730662
After-injection is the introduction of additional fuel to the combustion chamber after the end of the main injection. It is a persistent diesel fuel injection problem which usually results in reduced engine power and economy and increased emissions. After-injection is caused by uncontrolled pressure transients at the injector after the opening of the pump spill port. These pressure transients are related to the wave propagation phenomena in the high-pressure pipeline connecting the pump and injector. Use of experimental trial-and-error methods in attempts to control this phenomenon has met with limited success. The analytical control method described in another paper is used to determine design means by which after-injection may be controlled. Further investigation and evaluation of two design changes which release the injection system excess elastic energy in a controlled manner are considered herein. One design change is the addition of a control valve in the pump delivery chamber.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Control of Transient Flow in the Diesel Injection System Part I - The Analytical Control Method

1973-02-01
730661
The increasing requirements imposed on diesel engine manufacturers have required the study of fuel injection system faults and the development of means to eliminate them. Until now, improved injection system characteristics have been obtained by experimental trial-and-error procedures. These procedures, however, have proved to be inconvenient, tedious, and have had limited success in eliminating system faults such as after-injection. This is mainly because the transient nature of the injection process requires a more thorough study of the system time-varying parameters. In this paper the residual transients which cause after-injection are analytically investigated. The control of these transients required specification of some system parameter. The rapidly varying nature of the system pressures and flows prevented the use of these variables as control parameters.
Technical Paper

Vibratory Loosening of Bolts

1966-02-01
660432
In this paper, the effects of fluctuating torque on loosening of a tightly seated bolt are investigated. Tests over a wide range of bolt stresses and loosening torques are reported and equipment developed for determination of such effects is described. It is shown that a definite functional relationship exists between the stress on a typical bolt, the oscillatory loosening torque that is applied, and the number of cycles before the bolt becomes loose. The effects of these relationships follow a clearly defined law, although they are, of course, influenced by a number of additional variables.
Technical Paper

Wear Rates of Gears By the Radioactive Method

1955-01-01
550271
A METHOD is described in this paper by which the rates of gear wear under different conditions can be determined by the use of the radioactive tracer technique. With this method one can measure the minutest amount of wear at loads and speeds much below critical destructive conditions. This method makes possible the continuous determination of rates of gear wear at all loads and speeds in actual full-scale units. In this investigation, the radioactive tracer technique has been used to determine the rates of gear wear when using a straight mineral oil and when using an extreme-pressure gear lubricant.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Turbulence on the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Combustion in a Constant Volume Reactor

1984-02-01
840366
A cylindrical combustion bomb with dynamic charging system and electro-hydraulic sampling valve is used to study the effects of turbulence on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a quench layer and from artificial crevices. The turbulence level is varied by changing the delay time between induction of combustible charge and ignition. Propane-air mixtures were studied over an initial pressure range of 150 to 500 kPa and equivalence ratios of 0.7 to 1.4. Sampling valve experiments show that quench-layer fuel hydrocarbons are extensively oxidized within 5 ms of flame arrival under laminar conditions and that turbulence further reduces the already low level. Upper limit estimates of the residual wall layer HC concentration show that residual quench layer hydrocarbons are only a small fraction of the exhaust HC emission.
Technical Paper

Power-By-Wire Piezoelectric-Hydraulic Pump Actuator for Automotive Transmission Shift Control

2009-04-20
2009-01-0950
In this study, a new actuation system concept is developed for automotive transmission shift control. A piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (in short, PHP) based actuation system is one of the potential alternatives that can replace the current electro-hydraulic actuation system in automotive transmissions. Their feasibility has been successfully demonstrated in a lab environment. This study extends the application of the PHP actuator into an AT (Automatic Transmission) test-bed to validate the effectiveness of the new power-by-wire actuation concept. To demonstrate the potentials of the PHP actuator, a nonlinear sliding mode control for force tracking and hardware-in-the-loop simulation (in short, HILS) are performed.
Technical Paper

Structure-borne Vehicle Analysis using a Hybrid Finite Element Method

2009-05-19
2009-01-2196
The hybrid FEA method combines the conventional FEA method with the energy FEA (EFEA) for computing the structural vibration in vehicle structures when the excitation is applied on the load bearing stiff structural members. Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in the vehicle. In order to account for the effect of the flexible members in the FEA analysis, appropriate damping and spring/mass elements are introduced at the connections between stiff and flexible members. Computing properly the values of these damping and spring/mass elements is important for the overall accuracy of the computations. Utilizing in these computations the analytical solutions for the driving point impedance of infinite or semi-infinite members introduces significant approximations.
Technical Paper

Optimal Use of Boosting Configurations and Valve Strategies for High Load HCCI - A Modeling Study

2012-04-16
2012-01-1101
This study investigates a novel approach towards boosted HCCI operation, which makes use of all engine system components in order to maximize overall efficiency. Four-cylinder boosted HCCI engines have been modeled employing valve strategies and turbomachines that enable high load operation with significant efficiency benefits. A commercially available engine simulation software, coupled to the University of Michigan HCCI combustion and heat transfer correlations, was used to model the HCCI engines with three different boosting configurations: turbocharging, variable geometry turbocharging and combined supercharging with turbocharging. The valve strategy features switching from low-lift Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) to high-lift Positive Valve Overlap (PVO) at medium loads. The new operating approach indicates that heating of the charge from external compression is more efficient than heating by residual gas retention strategies.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Vehicle Occupant Body Dimensions and Postures Using a Statistical Body Shape Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0497
Reliable, accurate data on vehicle occupant characteristics could be used to personalize the occupant experience, potentially improving both satisfaction and safety. Recent improvements in 3D camera technology and increased use of cameras in vehicles offer the capability to effectively capture data on vehicle occupant characteristics, including size, shape, posture, and position. In previous work, the body dimensions of standing individuals were reliably estimated by fitting a statistical body shape model (SBSM) to data from a consumer-grade depth camera (Microsoft Kinect). In the current study, the methodology was extended to consider seated vehicle occupants. The SBSM used in this work was developed using laser scan data gathered from 147 children with stature ranging from 100 to 160 cm and BMI from 12 to 27 kg/m2 in various sitting postures.
Technical Paper

A Structural Stress Recovery Procedure for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2017-03-28
2017-01-0343
Over the decades, several attempts have been made to develop new fatigue analysis methods for welded joints since most of the incidents in automotive structures are joints related. Therefore, a reliable and effective fatigue damage parameter is needed to properly predict the failure location and fatigue life of these welded structures to reduce the hardware testing, time, and the associated cost. The nodal force-based structural stress approach is becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. In this paper, a new nodal force-based structural stress recovery procedure is proposed that uses the least squares method to linearly smooth the stresses in elements along the weld line. Weight function is introduced to give flexibility in choosing different weighting schemes between elements. Two typical weighting schemes are discussed and compared.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Strength and Failure Mode of Flow Drill Screw Joints in Coach-Peel Specimens of Aluminum 6082-T6 Sheets of Different Thicknesses and Processing Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0116
The mechanical strength and failure mode of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in coach-peel specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets of three different thicknesses of 2.5, 2.8 and 3.0 mm and three different processing conditions under quasi-static loading conditions are investigated by experiments. The experimental results indicate that the mechanical strength and failure mode of FDS joints in coach-peel specimens are affected by the specimen thickness, clearance hole and stripping. The maximum load of a coach-peel specimen with an FDS joint with clearance hole increases as the thickness increases. For each of the thickness groups of 2.5, 2.8 and 3.0 mm, the maximum load of a coach-peel specimen with an FDS joint without clearance hole is lower than that with clearance hole. For the thickness group of 2.8 mm, the maximum load of a coach-peel specimen with a stripped FDS joint with clearance hole is lower than those of non-stripped ones with and without clearance hole.
Technical Paper

Contrary Effects of Nozzle Length on Spray Primary Breakup under Subcooled and Superheated Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0302
Nozzle length has been proven influencing fuel spray characteristics, and subsequently fuel-air mixing and combustion processes. However, almost all existing related studies are conducted when fuel is subcooled, of which fuel evaporation is extremely weak, especially at the near nozzle region. In addition, injector tip can be heated to very high temperature in SIDI engines, which would trigger flash boiling fuel spray. Therefore, in this study, effect of nozzle length on spray characteristics is investigated under superheated conditions. Three single-hole injectors with different nozzle length were studied. High speed backlit imaging technique was applied to acquire magnified near nozzle spray images based on an optical accessible constant volume chamber. Fuel pressure was maintained at 15 MPa, and n-hexane was chosen as test fuel.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Bolt Load Retention of Die-Cast Magnesium

2000-03-06
2000-01-1121
The use of die cast magnesium for automobile transmission cases offers promise for reducing weight and improving fuel economy. However, the inferior creep resistance of magnesium alloys at high temperature is of concern since transmission cases are typically assembled and joined by pre-loaded bolts. The stress relaxation of the material could thus adversely impact the sealing of the joint. One means of assessing the structural integrity of magnesium transmission cases is modeling the bolted joint, the topic of this paper. The commercial finite element code, ABAQUS, was used to simulate a well characterized bolt joint sample. The geometry was simulated with axi-symmetric elements with the exact geometry of a M10 screw. Frictional contact between the male and female parts is modeled by using interface elements. Material creep is described by a time hardening power law whose parameters are fit to experimental creep test data.
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