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Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Computational Process for Pass-By Noise Simulation

The Indirect Boundary Element Analysis is employed for developing a computational pass-by noise simulation capability. An inverse analysis algorithm is developed in order to generate the definition of the main noise sources in the numerical model. The individual source models are combined for developing a system model for pass-by noise simulation. The developed numerical techniques are validated through comparison between numerical results and test data for component level and system level analyses. Specifically, the source definition capability is validated by comparing the actual and the computationally reconstructed acoustic field for an engine intake manifold. The overall pass-by noise simulation capability is validated by computing the maximum overall sound pressure level for a vehicle under two separate driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Oil Film Dynamic Characteristics for Journal Bearing Elastohydrodynamic Analysis Based on a Finite Difference Formulation

A fast and accurate journal bearing elastohydrodynamic analysis is presented based on a finite difference formulation. The governing equations for the oil film pressure, stiffness and damping are solved using a finite difference approach. The oil film domain is discretized using a rectangular two-dimensional finite difference mesh. In this new formulation, it is not necessary to generate a global fluidity matrix similar to a finite element based solution. The finite difference equations are solved using a successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm. The concept of “Influence Zone,” for computing the dynamic characteristics is introduced. The SOR algorithm and the “Influence Zone” concept significantly improve the computational efficiency without loss of accuracy. The new algorithms are validated with numerical results from the literature and their numerical efficiency is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Heat Release Rate Analysis of a Diesel Engine Operating Under Steady State Conditions

An experimental heat release rate analysis was conducted on a six cylinder, 12.7 liter Detroit Diesel Series 60 turbocharged engine operating under steady state conditions. The overall chemical, or gross, rate of heat release and the net apparent rate of heat release were determined from experimental measurements. The gross, time averaged, heat release rate was determined by two separate concepts/methods using exhaust gas concentration measurements from the Nicolet Rega 7000 Real Time Exhaust Gas Analyzer and the measured exhaust gas flow rate. The net apparent rate of heat release was determined from the in-cylinder pressure measurements for each of the six cylinders, averaged over 80 cycles. These pressure measurements were obtained using a VXI based Tektronix data acquisition system and LabVIEW software. A computer algorithm then computed the net apparent rate of heat release from the averaged in-cylinder pressure measurements.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Transient Heat Losses to Tank Wall During the Inflator Tank Test

A series of inflator tank tests was carried out to determine the amount of transient heat losses to the tank wall during these tests. The time history data of tank wall temperature, and tank interior gas temperature and pressure, were measured. The tank wall temperature data were analyzed using an inverse heat conduction method to generate the transient heat loss fluxes from the tank gas to the tank wall. The validity of the results are discussed along with the physical reasoning and experimental observations. This is the first part of an effort in a research project to develop a comprehensive heat transfer model to predict the transient heat losses to the tank wall during the inflator tank test.
Technical Paper

One-Dimensional Transient Dynamics of Fuel Evaporation and Diffusion in Induction Systems

Engine performance under transients is greatly affected by the fuel behavior in the induction systems. To better understand the fuel behavior, a computer model has been developed to study the one-dimensional coupled heat and mass transfer processes occurring during the transient evaporation of liquid fuel from a heated surface into stagnant air. The energy and mass diffusion equations are solved simultaneously to yield the transient temperatures and species concentrations using a modified finite difference technique. The numerical technique is capable of solving the coupled equations while simultaneously tracking the movement of the evaporation interface. Evaporation results are presented for various initial film thicknesses representing typical puddle thicknesses for multi-point fuel injection systems using heptane, octane, and nonane pure hydrocarbon fuels.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Airbag Tank-Test Results

The evaluation of the performance of a particular inflator for the design of the entire airbag system is typically carried out by examining the pressure pattern in a standard tank test. This study assesses the adequacy of the tank test as a true measure of the likely performance of the actual inflator-airbag system. Theoretical arguments, numerical experiments, and physical experiments show that the time rate of pressure change may be an appropriate measure to evaluate performance of a specific type of inflator, particularly if variations in the inflator design maintain the same working gas components. However, when evaluating and comparing the dynamic behavior between different types of inflators, the time rate of pressure change provides useful but incomplete information.
Technical Paper

Automotive Demand, Markets, and Material Selection Processes

Cost reduction, quality improvement, and regulatory compliance are well-recognized competitive issues. Companies must excel along each of these fronts while operating in an environment of rapid and multi-faceted change, limited financial and human capital, and increasing product development time pressure. In addition, consumers are demanding automobiles that provide greater performance, function, and comfort while emitting lower emissions, consuming fewer gallons of gasoline, injuring fewer humans, and requiring fewer dollars to build and purchase. A solution to these seemingly conflicting objectives is to take a systems view of the product and industry. This paper explores the material decision process so that manufacturers, component suppliers, and material providers may better understand the interlocking web of compromises that shape the pursuit of value-added alternatives and avoidance of unprofitable compromises.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy and Power Benefits of Cetane-Improved Fuels in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

A program to explore the effects of natural and additive-derived cetane on various aspects of diesel performance and combustion has been carried out. Procedures have been developed to measure diesel engine fuel consumption and power to a high degree of precision. These methods have been used to measure fuel consumption and power in three heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engines. The fuel matrix consisted of three commercial fuels of cetane number (CN) of 40-42, the same fuels raised to CN 48-50 with a cetane improver additive, and three commercial fuels of base CN 47-50. The engines came from three different U.S. manufacturers and were of three different model years and emissions configurations. Both fuel economy and power were found to be significantly higher for the cetane-improved fuels than for the naturally high cetane fuels. These performance advantages derive mainly from the higher volumetric heat content inherent to the cetane-improved fuels.
Technical Paper

Mixture Motion - Its Effect on Pressure Rise in a Combustion Bomb: A New Look at Cyclic Variation

Cycle-to-cycle variation of pressure is a common problem in all spark-ignition engines. To examine the suspected influence of mixture-motion on this variation, a study was performed in a constant volume cylindrical bomb in which a jet of propane-air mixture was directed at the initial flame kernel. The rate of pressure rise of the jet-influenced combustion was compared to the rate for combustion in a quiescent mixture. The flame area, obtained using a spark schlieren photographic technique, and the calculated combustion rate were correlated with the pressure rate. The major results were: the rate of pressure rise increased approximately linearly with mixture jet velocity; and the width of the mixture-jet had an effect on the rate of pressure rise. A jet profile width slightly greather than the spark-gap produced the highest rate of pressure rise.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Tire Health Monitoring System Using On-board Motion Sensors

This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic and Practical Benefits of Waste Energy Recovery Using an Electric Turbo-Generator Under Different Boosting Methods

This paper provides insight into the tradeoffs between exhaust energy recovery and increased pumping losses from the flow restriction of the electric turbo-generator (eTG) assessed using thermodynamic principles and with a detailed GT-Power engine model. The GT-Power engine model with a positive displacement expander model was used to predict the influence of back pressure on in-cylinder residuals and combustion. The eTG is assessed for two boosting arrangements: a conventional turbocharger (TC) and an electrically assisted variable speed (EAVS) supercharger (SC). Both a low pressure (post-turbine) and high pressure (pre-turbine) eTG are considered for the turbocharged configuration. The reduction in fuel consumption (FC) possible over various drive cycles is estimated based on the steady-state efficiency of frequently visited operating points assuming all recovered energy can be reused at an engine efficiency of 30% with 10% losses in the electrical path.
Technical Paper

Infrared Borescopic Analysis of Ignition and Combustion Variability in a Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engine

Optical imaging diagnostics of combustion are most often performed in the visible spectral band, in part because camera technology is most mature in this region, but operating in the infrared (IR) provides a number of benefits. These benefits include access to emission lines of relevant chemical species (e.g. water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and obviation of image intensifiers (avoiding reduced spatial resolution and increased cost). High-speed IR in-cylinder imaging and image processing were used to investigate the relationships between infrared images, quantitative image-derived metrics (e.g. location of the flame centroid), and measurements made with in-cylinder pressure transducers (e.g. coefficient of variation of mean effective pressure). A 9.7-liter, inline-six, natural-gas-fueled engine was modified to enable exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and provide borescopic optical access to one cylinder for two high-speed infrared cameras.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Cord Loads in Tires on Roadwheel and Highway

Strain gage instrumented transducers were used to measure the cord loads at a number of locations in several different automotive tires loaded against both flat and cylindrical road wheel surfaces. The two basic types of cord load fluctuation encountered in all automobile tires have been identified from these measurements, and the most severe location for cord load fluctuations has been closely bracketed. By these measurements, it has been possible to show that for each tire definite relations exist between the cord loads induced while running on a cylindrical drum and while running on a flat surface. The maximum cord load fluctuations in a tire are the same for the NBS roadwheel and flat surface when the tire is loaded against the roadwheel with a load of between 85 and 90% of that used on the flat surface.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Injection System Simulation and Experimental Correlation

A theoretical digital simulation of a conventional diesel fuel injection system has been developed. The influence of such factors as wave propagation phenomena, pipe friction, and cavitation are included. The computer results are compared with transient pressures as measured on an actual fuel injection system operated on a test bench. The comparisons show the accuracy and validity of this simulation scheme. Special attention is given to some of the important factors that affect the accuracy of the simulation model. These include the effect of pressure on the fuel bulk modulus and wave speed, the pipe line residual pressure, and the coefficient of discharge of important orifices.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Turbulence on the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Combustion in a Constant Volume Reactor

A cylindrical combustion bomb with dynamic charging system and electro-hydraulic sampling valve is used to study the effects of turbulence on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a quench layer and from artificial crevices. The turbulence level is varied by changing the delay time between induction of combustible charge and ignition. Propane-air mixtures were studied over an initial pressure range of 150 to 500 kPa and equivalence ratios of 0.7 to 1.4. Sampling valve experiments show that quench-layer fuel hydrocarbons are extensively oxidized within 5 ms of flame arrival under laminar conditions and that turbulence further reduces the already low level. Upper limit estimates of the residual wall layer HC concentration show that residual quench layer hydrocarbons are only a small fraction of the exhaust HC emission.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Secondary Fuel Injection on the Performance and Exhaust Emissions of An Open-Chamber Diesel Engine

Secondary injection in a diesel engine is defined as the introduction of additional fuel into the combustion chamber after the end of the main injection. It is usually caused by residual pressure waves in the high-pressure pipe line connecting the pump and injector. When these waves exceed the injector opening pressure, secondary injection occurs. Tests revealed that the U.S. Army TACOM single-cylinder engine used in this investigation, fitted with an American Bosch injection system, had secondary injection within the normal engine operating region. The pump spill ports and delivery valve were redesigned to eliminate secondary injection, in accordance with previously reported work. Comparative tests of both the conventional and modified injection systems were run on the same engine, and the effects of secondary injection on engine power, economy, and exhaust emissions were determined.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Simulation for the Response of a Structure Subjected to a Load from an Explosion

Utilizing simulation technology is important for designing a structure with increased survivability to a load from an explosion. The pressure wave from the blast and the fragments hitting the structure must be simulated in such an analysis. Commercial software can be utilized through the development of appropriate interfaces for performing such computations. In this paper an approach is presented for combining commercially available Eulerian and Lagrangian solvers for performing blast event simulations. A capability has been developed for automatically creating the Eulerian finite element given the finite element model for the structure. The effect of moisture in the soil properties is considered during the generation of the soil - explosive - air model used by the Eulerian solver. Tracers are defined in the Eulerian model for all structural finite elements which are on the outer part of the structure and are subjected to the load from the blast.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of EGR Cooler Fouling on a GDI Engine

Cooled EGR provides benefits in better fuel economy and lower emissions by reducing knocking tendency and decreasing peak cylinder temperature in gasoline engines. However, GDI engines have high particle emissions due to limited mixing of fuel and air, and these particle emissions can be a major source of EGR cooler fouling. In order to improve our knowledge of GDI engine EGR cooler fouling, the effects of tube geometry and coolant temperature on EGR cooler performance and degradation were studied using a four cylinder 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine. In addition, deposit microstructure was analyzed to explore the nature of deposits formed under GDI engine operation. The results of this study showed that a dented tube geometry was more effective in cooling the exhaust gas than a smooth tube due to its large surface area and turbulent fluid motion. However, more deposits were accumulated and higher effectiveness loss was observed in the dented tube.
Technical Paper

Characteristic Time Analysis of SI Knock with Retarded Combustion Phasing in Boosted Engines

This study investigates the use of a characteristic reaction time as a possible method to speed up automotive knock calculations. In an earlier study of HCCI combustion it was found that for ignition at TDC, the ignition delay time at TDC conditions was required to be approximately 10 crank angle degrees (CAD), regardless of engine speed. In this study the analysis has been applied to knock in SI engines over a wide range of engine operating conditions including boosted operation and retarded combustion phasing, typical of high load operation of turbocharged engines. Representative pressure curves were used as input to a detailed kinetics calculation for a gasoline surrogate fuel mechanism with 312 species. The same detailed mechanism was used to compile a data set with traditional constant volume ignition delays evaluated at the peak pressure conditions in the end gas assuming adiabatic compression.