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Technical Paper

Exhaust System Heat Transfer and Catalytic Converter Performance

1999-03-01
1999-01-0453
Three-way catalytic converters used on spark ignition engines have performance and durability characteristics which are effected by the thermal environment in which these operate. The design of the exhaust system and the location of the catalyst unit are important in controlling the range of thermal states the catalyst is exposed to. A model of system thermal behaviour has been developed to support studies of these. The exhaust system is modelled as connected pipe and junction elements with lumped thermal capacities. Heat transfer correlations for quasi-steady and transient conditions have been investigated. The catalytic converter is treated as elemental slices in series. Exothermic heat release and heat exchange between the monolith, mat, and shell are described in the model. A similar description is applied to lean NOx trap units.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0556
A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Technical Paper

Fuel Transport to the Crankcase, Oil Dilution and HC Return with Breather Flow During the Cold Operation of a SI Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1235
Fuel losses to the crankcase, fuel/oil interactions, and fuel return as unburned hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been investigated. Hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been measured during motored and firing engine operation over a range of temperatures. Fuel desorption from the sump oil accounts for a small proportion of this. The major source is hydrocarbons transported past the piston with blowby. After a cold start, around 85% of these are retained in oil films below the ring pack. The recirculation of oil from the films to the sump contributes to bulk oil dilution. This appears to be the prime mechanism by which fuel is lost to oil dilution during cold operation. The mechanism becomes less effective as engine warm-up progresses. At fully-warm oil temperatures (∼100°C), only about 5% are removed from the blowby.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Gas/Fuel Ratio on Combustion Stability and Misfire Limits of Spark Ignition Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1208
The deterioration of combustion stability as lean operating limits and misfire conditions are approached has been investigated experimentally. The study has been carried out on spark ignition engines with port fuel injection and four-valves-per-cylinder. Test conditions cover fully-warm and cold operation, and ranges of air/fuel ratio, exhaust gas recirculation rates and spark timing. An approximate method of calculating gas/fuel ratio is described. This is used to show that combustion stability, characterised by the coefficient of variation of i.m.e.p., is a function of calculated gas/fuel ratio and spark timing until near to the limit of stability. A rapid deterioration in stability and the onset of weak, partial burning occurs at a gas/fuel ratio between 24:1 and 26:1 under fully-warm operating conditions, and around one gas/fuel ratio lower under cold operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Utilisation After Cold Starting Spark Ignition Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0220
A model has been developed to interpret experimental results for emissions and air/fuel ratio variations recorded during warm-up from cold starts at temperatures down to -20°C. The model describes fuel transport and utilisation after injection to its exhaust as fuel products or loss to the crankcase, and allows for the storage of fuel in films on the intake port surface, in-cylinder surfaces and in the piston “crevice”. Engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons are treated as being comprised of contributions from the bulk charge, fuel returning from in-cylinder wetted surfaces and from fuel stored in the piston crevices. The model characterises engine-out emissions and air/fuel ratio variations successfully under both quasi-steady and transient engine operating conditions during warm-up. Good agreement between experimental data and model predictions has been achieved for a wide range of engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The Build-Up of Oil Dilution by Gasoline and the Influence of Vehicle Usage Pattern

2000-10-16
2000-01-2838
The dilution of lubricating oil by fuel has adverse effects on engine wear, oil lubricity, air/fuel ratio control and feedgas emissions. Dilution is one of the factors limiting oil change intervals. The level and rate of accumulation depend on engine operating conditions and patterns of vehicle use. The work reported here develops and evaluates an empirical model to predict accumulation characteristics. This is aligned to requirements for predictions of dilution build-up in service. Predictions are shown to be in good agreement with data given in the literature. The model is used to investigate the influence of patterns of vehicle use on dilution.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Engine Heat Transfer for Heat Rejection and Warm-Up Modelling

1997-05-19
971851
A correlation for total gas-side heat transfer rate has been derived from the analysis of engine data for measured heat rejection rate, frictional dissipation, and published data on exhaust port heat transfer. The correlation is related to the form developed by Taylor and Toong, and the analysis draws on this. However, cylinder and exhaust port contributions are separated. Two empirical constants are fixed to best match predicted to measured results for heat rejection to coolant and oil cooler under steady-state conditions, and also for exhaust port heat transfer rates. The separated contributions also defined a correlation for exhaust port heat transfer rate. The description of gas-side heat transfer is suited to needs for the analysis of global thermal behaviour of engines.
Technical Paper

Fuel Film Evaporation and Heat Transfer in the Intake Port of an S.I. Engine

1996-05-01
961120
Surface heat transfer measurements have been taken in the intake port of a single cylinder four valve SI engine running on isooctane fuel. The objective has been to establish how fuel characteristics affect trends in surface heat transfer rates for a range of engine operating conditions. The heat transfer measurements were made using heat flux gauges bonded to the intake port surface in the region where highest rates of fuel deposition occur. The influence on heat transfer rates of the deposited fuel and its subsequent behaviour has been examined by comparing fuel-wetted and dry-surface heat transfer measurements. Heat transfer changes are consistent with trends predicted by convective mass transfer over much of the range of surface temperatures from 20°C to 100°C. Towards the upper temperature limit heat transfer reaches a maximum limited by the rate and distribution of fuel deposition.
Technical Paper

Audit of Fuel Utilisation During the Warm-Up of SI Engines

1997-05-01
971656
Experimental studies of fuel utilisation during the early stages of engine warm-up after cold-starts are reported. The investigation has been carried out on a 1.81, 4 cylinder spark-ignition engine with port electronic fuel injection. The relationship between fuel supplied and fuel accounted for by the analysis of exhaust gas composition shows that a significant mass of fuel supplied is temporarily stored or permanently lost. An interpretation of data is made which allows time-dependent variations of these to be separately resolved and estimates of fuel quantities made. The data covers a range of cold-start conditions down to -5°C at which, on a per cylinder basis, fuel stored peaks typically at around 0.75g and a total of 1g is returned over 100 seconds of engine running. Fuel lost past the piston typically accounts for 2g over 200 to 300 seconds of running.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Drive Cycle Emissions and Fuel Consumption

1997-05-01
971603
A method of predicting HC, CO and NOx emissions and fuel-used over drive cycles has been developed. This has been applied to FTP-75 and ECE+EUDC drive cycles amended to include cold-start and warm-up. The method requires only fully-warm steady state indicated performance data to be available for the engine. This is used in conjunction with a model of engine thermal behaviour and friction characteristics, and vehicle/drive cycle specifications enabling engine brake load/speed variations to be defined. A time marching prediction of engine-out emissions and fuel consumption is carried out taking into account factors which include high engine friction and poor mixture preparation after cold-start. Comparisons with experimental data indicate that fuel consumption and emissions can be predicted to quantitative accuracy. The method has been applied to compare and contrast the importance of various operating regimes during the two cycles.
Technical Paper

Intra-Cycle Resolution of Heat Transfer to Fuel in the Intake Port of an S.I. Engine

1996-10-01
961995
Previously reported studies of heat transfer between the intake port surface, gas flows in the port, and fuel deposited in surface films have been extended to examine details of the heat flux variations which occur within the engine cycle. The dynamic response characteristics of the surface-mounted heat flux sensors have been determined, and measured heat flux data corrected accordingly to account for these characteristics. Details of the model and data processing technique used are described. Corrected intra-cycle variations of heat transfer to fuel deposited have been derived for engine operating conditions at 1000 RPM covering a range of manifold pressures, fuel supply rates, port surface temperatures, and fuel injection timings. Both pump-grade gasoline and isooctane fuel have been used. The effects of operating conditions on the magnitude and features of the heat flux variations are described.
Technical Paper

Intake Port Fuel Transport and Emissions: The Influence of Injector Type and Fuel Composition

1996-10-01
961996
Experimental studies have been carried out on a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection to examine the influence of injector type and to contrast this with the effects of fuel composition. Intake port fuel transport characteristics and engine-out emissions for fully-warm and warm-up engine operating conditions have been examined as indicators of performance. The investigation has encompassed four types of injector and five gasoline blends. Fuel transport has been characterised using the τ and X parameters. The influence of injector type on these is of similar significance as that of changes in gasoline composition between summer and winter grades. The latter will limit the in-service accuracy of open-loop mixture control during transients. Injector type has a small effect on engine-out emissions under fully-warm operating conditions but has a significant influence on emissions during the early stages of warm-up.
Technical Paper

A Madymo Model of the Foot and Leg for Local Impacts

1999-10-10
99SC12
It has been reported that lower extremity injuries represent a measurable portion of all moderate-to-severe automobile crash- related injuries. Thus, a simple tool to assist with the design of leg and foot injury countermeasures is desirable. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model which can predict load propagation and kinematics of the foot and leg in frontal automotive impacts. A multi-body model developed at the University of Virginia and validated for blunt impact to the whole foot has been used as basis for the current work. This model includes representations of the tibia, fibula, talus, hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot bones. Additionally, the model provides a means for tensioning the Achilles tendon. In the current study, the simulations conducted correspond to tests performed by the Transport Research Laboratory and the University of Nottingham on knee-amputated cadaver specimens.
Technical Paper

Application of Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) Approach for the Modeling of Reacting Biodiesel Fuel Spray using OpenFOAM

2014-10-13
2014-01-2565
Modeling the combustion process of a diesel-biodiesel fuel spray in a 3-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) domain remains challenging and time-consuming despite the recent advancement in computing technologies. Accurate representation of the in-cylinder processes is essential for CFD studies to provide invaluable insights into these events, which are typically limited when using conventional experimental measurement techniques. This is especially true for emerging new fuels such as biodiesels since fundamental understanding of these fuels under combusting environment is still largely unknown. The reported work here is dedicated to evaluating the Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) approach in OpenFOAM® for improved simulation of reacting biodiesel fuel spray. An in-house model for thermo-physical and transport properties is integrated to the code, along with a chemical mechanism comprising 113 species and 399 reactions.
Technical Paper

Transient Air/Fuel Ratio Control of an S.I. Engine Using Neural Networks

1996-02-01
960326
Engine Electronic Control (EEC) systems on spark ignition engines enable a high degree of performance optimisation to be achieved through strategy and calibration details in software, but development times and costs can be high. The range of functions performed by EEC systems, and the level of performance demanded, are increasing and new methods of development are required. In the paper, the use of neural networks in the development and implementation of open-loop control of air/fuel ratio during engine transient operating conditions is described. The investigation has addressed the definition of suitable networks, the procedure and data required to train these, and assessment of real-time performance of the implemented system. The potential benefits of the approach include reduced calibration effort and simplification of the control strategy.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Measurements in the Intake Port of a Spark Ignition Engine

1996-02-01
960273
Surface-mounted heat flux sensors have been used in the intake port of a fuel injected, spark ignition engine to investigate heat transfer between the surface, the gas flows through the port, and fuel deposited in surface films. The engine is of a four valve per cylinder design, with a bifurcated intake port. For dry-port conditions heat transfer per cycle varies between 0 and 300 J/m2 depending on location, towards the surface at low temperatures and away from the surface at fully-warm conditions. Particular attention has been given to the changes in heat transfer rate associated with fuel deposition. Typically this is of the order of 5 kW/m2 in regions of heavy fuel deposition and varies by a factor of 2 over the period of an engine cycle. During warm-up, as coolant temperature increases from 0 to 90°C, changes in heat transfer associated with fuel deposition typically increase from 300 J/m2 to 1000 J/m2.
Technical Paper

Effect of Coolant Mixture Composition on Engine Heat Rejection Rate

1996-02-01
960275
The rate of heat rejection to the coolant system of an internal combustion engine depends upon coolant composition, among other factors, because this influences the coolant side heat transfer coefficient. The correlation developed by Taylor and Toong for heat transfer rate has been modified to account for this effect. The modification retains the gas-to-coolant passage thermal resistance implicit in the original correlation. The modified correlation gives predictions in agreement with experimental data. Compared to 100% water, mixtures of 50% ethylene glycol/50% water lower heat rejection rates by typically 5% and up to 25% in the extreme. This depends upon local conditions in the coolant circuit, which can give rise to different heat transfer regimes. Application of the modified correlation is outlined and illustrated.
Technical Paper

Fuel Transport Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engines for Transient Fuel Compensation

1995-02-01
950067
The fuel transfer characteristics of the intake port of a fuel-injected spark ignition engine have been determined for engine warm-up conditions following cold starts at temperature down to -30°C and extending to fully-warm states, using a method based upon perturbing fuel injection rate and recording AFR response. The variation of τ and x parameters over a range of temperatures, engine speeds, AFR, and engine loads has been evaluated. Temperature and speed have greatest influence, AFR and load effects are small. Application of the data to define transient fuel compensation requirements has been examined.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Evaluation of Cold Start Fuelling Strategy and Calibration Details for Spark Ignition Engines

1994-02-01
940085
Spark ignition engines for automotive applications must have good cold start performance characteristics at sub-zero ambient temperatures. Satisfactory performance is most difficult to achieve at the lower end of the temperature range, typically around -30°C. The start characteristics of a particular engine depend on basic design features, starter motor characteristics, and the calibration and strategy used to regulate fuel supply during start up. The paper reports a computational model which enables the investigation of these with the minimum of experimental data. The model has been developed to run on desk-top PC machines, specifically as a CAE development tool. The formulation of the model and the experimental tests were used to generate the input data required for particular applications are described.
Technical Paper

A Development Methodology for Improving the Cold Start Performance of Spark Ignition Engines

1994-02-01
940084
Optimising an engine specification to improve cold start performance has been investigated. Taguchi methods were used to define a test programme to assess the effect of seven build factors. Experiments were conducted to measure mixture ratio at the spark plug location after a short period of engine cranking at test conditions covering ± 15°C and three fuel-mass-supplied values. The analysis of the results identified build modifications which improved start quality and reduced HC and CO emissions substantially compared to a reference, base-line build. Injector design and location, and inlet valve timing were found to have most influence on robustness to uncontrolled variations in mixture preparation during starts.
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