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Technical Paper

An Elementary Simulation of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of Hydraulically Damped Rubber Mount of Car Engine

2001-04-30
2001-01-1453
Hydraulically damped rubber engine mounts (HDM) are an effective means of providing sufficient isolation from engine vibration while also providing significant damping to control the rigid body motions of the engine during normal driving conditions. This results in a system which exhibits a high degree of non-linearity in terms of both frequency and amplitude. The numerical simulation of vibration isolation characteristics of HDM is difficult due to the fluid-structure interaction between the main supporting rubber and fluid in chambers, the nonlinear material properties, the large deformation of rubber parts, structure contact problems among the inner parts, and the turbulent flow in the inertia track. In this paper an integrated numerical simulation analysis based on structural FEM and a lumped-parameter model of HDM is carried out.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling of Vehicle Fuel Cell Power System Thermal Management

2003-03-03
2003-01-1146
A mathematical model of vehicle fuel cell system thermal management has been developed to investigate the effects of various design and operating conditions on the thermal management and to understand the underlying mechanism. The fuel cell stack structure is represented by a lumped thermal mass model, which has the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of the fuel cell stack structure. The whole thermal management system is discretized into many volumes, where each flowspit is represented by a single volume, and every pipe is divided into one or more volumes. These volumes are connected by boundaries. The model is solved numerically to analyze thermal management system performance. The effects of coolant flow rates and air flow rates on the system thermal performance, the stack thermal capacity on the transient thermal performance have been investigated in detail.
Technical Paper

Study of the Injection Control Valve in a New Electronic Diesel Fuel System

1998-02-23
980813
At first, the dynamic electromagnetic characteristics of a pulsed solenoid valve is analyzed by experiments. The fast valve response is obtained by material modifications. Then, the intelligent solenoid driving method is discussed. The new techniques of the “active” PWM and the “d2i/dt2” detection are developed for feedback control of the solenoid holding current and the valve closure timing. Finally, the control and diagnosis method for the valve closure duration is investigated. A sensing mechanism utilizing momentary camshaft speed fluctuations of fuel injection pump is presented, which provides the basis for feedback control and diagnosis of the valve closure duration and diesel fuel injection process.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Simulation of the Transient Performance of a Petrol Engine

1993-03-01
930855
A comprehensive computer simulation has been developed to predict the transient performance of a spark ignition engine. The model has been tuned to fit experimental data obtained from tests upon a FORD SIERRA engine. The potential of the model as an aid to engine design and development is illustrated by means of predictions of the effects of changes in moment of inertia and ignition advance.
Technical Paper

A New Measurement Method for Separating Airborne and Structure Borne Sound from an I.C. Engine’s Valve Train Mechanism

1993-05-01
931335
With the introduction of lean burn and multivalve technology to produce gasoline engines with power outputs above 50 kW/litre there has also been an increasing interest in baseline engine noise. One component of this is due to the operation of valve train mechanism. The work described in this paper concentrates on this aspect of engine noise and uses a motoring rig to allow a full assessment of the problem. Usually the noise of the valve train mechanism is measured outside the valve cover. Here both noise inside and outside the valve cover is assessed using an extension of the acoustic substitution technique and the individual contribution of both airborne and structure borne noise assessed. It is found that airborne noise generated by the valve mechanism inside the valve cover and transmitted through the cover can be a major noise source at low frequencies (200 - 1200 Hz) and higher engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Simulation and Study of the Transient Performance of a Rotary Engine

1993-09-01
932455
A comprehensive computer simulation has been developed to predict the transient performance of a rotary engine. An adiabatic throttling process has been assumed to account for crevice leakage. The simulation has been tuned to fit experimental data obtained from tests upon a NORTON NR 601 engine. The potential of the model as an aid to engine design and development is illustrated by means of predictions of the effects of changes in some of the design parameters.
Technical Paper

Simulations on Special Structure ISG Motor Used for Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Aimed at Active Damping

2017-03-28
2017-01-1123
Engine torque fluctuation is a great threat to vehicle comfort and durability. Former researches tried to solve this problem by introducing active damping system, which means the motor is controlled to produce torque ripple with just the opposite phase to that of the engine. By this means, the torque fluctuation produced by the motor and the engine can be reduced. In this paper, a new method is raised. An attempt is proposed by changing the traditional structure of the motor, making it produce ripple torque by itself instead of controlling the motor. In this way a special used ISG (Integrated Starter Generator) motor for HEV (Hybrid Electrical Vehicles) is made to achieve active damping. In order to study the possibility, a simulation, which focus on the motor instead of the whole system, is developed and series-parallel configuration is used in this simulation. As for the motor that used in this paper, four kinds of motors have been investigated and compared.
Technical Paper

Occupant Injury Response Prediction Prior to Crash Based on Pre-Crash Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1471
Occupant restraint systems are developed based on some baseline experiments. While these experiments can only represent small part of various accident modes, the current procedure for utilizing the restraint systems may not provide the optimum protection in the majority of accident modes. This study presents an approach to predict occupant injury responses before the collision happens, so that the occupant restraint system, equipped with a motorized pretensioner, can be adjusted to the optimal parameters aiming at the imminent vehicle-to-vehicle frontal crash. The approach in this study takes advantage of the information from pre-crash systems, such as the time to collision, the relative velocity, the frontal overlap, the size of the vehicle in the front and so on. In this paper, the vehicle containing these pre-crash features will be referred to as ego vehicle. The information acquired and the basic crash test results can be integrated to predict a simplified crash pulse.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Stability Control Strategy Based on Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1565
A vehicle dynamics stability control system based on integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (I-EHB) system with hierarchical control architecture and nonlinear control method is designed to improve the vehicle dynamics stability under extreme conditions in this paper. The I-EHB system is a novel brake-by-wire system, and is suitable to the development demands of intelligent vehicle technology and new energy vehicle technology. Four inlet valves and four outlet valves are added to the layout of a conventional four-channel hydraulic control unit. A permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) provides a stabilized high-pressure source in the master cylinder, and the four-channel hydraulic control unit ensures that the pressures in each wheel cylinder can be modulated separately at a high precision. Besides, the functions of Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System and Regenerative Braking System, Autonomous Emergency Braking can be integrated in this brake-by-wire system.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODE)/ Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) Blends in Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0926
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF), with a distillation range from Initial Boiling Point of gasoline to Final Boiling Point of diesel, can be easily gained directly by blending diesel with gasoline. However, the reduced auto-ignitability of WDF could lead to higher HC emissions. Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODE), with good volatility and oxygen content of up to 49%, have great potential to improve combustion and emission characteristics, especially for soot reduction. Experiments were carried out in a light-duty four-cylinder diesel engine fueled with neat diesel, gasoline/diesel blends (GD), GD/PODE blends (GDP) and the combustion and emission characteristics were carefully examined. Results showed that GDP had the lowest PM emission and diesel had the poorest one among the three fuels. Due to the addition of gasoline and the relatively poor ignitability, GD had lower combustion efficiency and higher Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) emissions than diesel.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Analysis of Periodic Cruise Control Strategies for Power-Split HEVs at Medium and Low Speed

2018-04-03
2018-01-0871
Hybridization of vehicles is considered as the most promising technology for automakers and researchers, facing the challenge of optimizing both the fuel economy and emission of the road transport. Extensive studies have been performed on power-split hybrid electric vehicles (PS-HEVs). Despite of the fact that their excellent fuel economy performance in city driving conditions has been witnessed, a bottle neck for further improving the fuel economy of PS-HEVs has been encountered due to the inherent engine-generator-motor power circulation of the power-split system under medium-low speed cruising scenarios. Due to the special mechanical constraints of the power-split device (PSD), the conventional periodic cruising strategy like Pulse and Glide cannot be applied to PS-HEVs directly.
Technical Paper

Mission-based Design Space Exploration for Powertrain Electrification of Series Plugin Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck

2018-04-03
2018-01-1027
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are essential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, when analyzing different segments of the transportation industry, for example, public transportation or different sizes of delivery trucks and how the HEV are used, it is clear that one powertrain may not be optimal in all situations. Choosing a hybrid powertrain architecture and proper component sizes for different applications is an important task to find the optimal trade-off between fuel economy, drivability, and vehicle cost. However, exploring and evaluating all possible architectures and component sizes is a time-consuming task. A search algorithm, using Gaussian Processes, is proposed that simultaneously explores multiple architecture options, to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions.
Technical Paper

Emergency Steering Evasion Control by Combining the Yaw Moment with Steering Assistance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0818
The coordinated control of stability and steering systems in collision avoidance steering evasion has been widely studied in vehicle active safety area, but the studies are mainly aimed at autonomous vehicle without driver or conventional combustion engine vehicle. This paper focuses on the control of hybrid vehicle integrated with rear hub in emergency steering evasion situation, and considering the driver’s characteristics. First, the mathematics model of vehicle dynamics and driver has been given. Second, based on the planned steering evasion path, the model predictive control method is presented for achieving higher evasion path tracking accuracy under driver’s steering input. The prediction model includes an adaptive preview distance driver model and a vehicle dynamics model to predict the driver input and the vehicle trajectory.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Piecewise Affine-Based Shared Steering Torque Control Scheme for Cooperative Path-Tracking: A Game-Theoretic Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0606
The new concept of “human-machine shared control” provides an amazing thinking to enhance driving safety, which has been attracted a great deal of research effort in recent years. However, little attention has been paid to the nonlinearity of the shared control system brought by the tire, which significantly influences the control performance under extreme driving conditions. This paper presents a novel shared steering torque control scheme to model the human-machine steering torque interaction near the vehicle’s handling limit, where both driver and driver assistance system (DAS) are exerting steering torque to maneuver the vehicle. A six-order driver-vehicle dynamic system is presented to elaborate the relationship between steering torque input and vehicle lateral motion response. Particularly, we use a piecewise affine (PWA) method to approximate the tire nonlinearity.
Technical Paper

Recycling-Based Reduction of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission of China’s Electric Vehicles: Overview and Policy Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0659
Electric vehicles maintain the fastest development in China and undertake the responsibility of optimizing energy consumption and carbon emission in the transportation field. However, from the entire life cycle point of view, although electric vehicles have a certain degree of energy consumption and carbon emission reduction in the use phase, they cause extra energy consumption and carbon emission in the manufacturing phase, which weakens the due environmental benefits to some extent. The recycling of electric vehicles can effectively address the issue and indirectly reduce the energy consumption and carbon emission in the manufacturing phase. China is setting up the recycling system and strengthening regulation force to achieve proper energy consumption and carbon emission reduction benefits of electric vehicles. Under the current electric vehicle recycling technologies, China can reduce about 34% of carbon emission in electric vehicle manufacturing phase.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Design of In-Tire Energy Harvester for the Power Supply of Tire Sensors

2018-04-03
2018-01-1115
With the development of intelligent vehicle and active vehicle safety systems, the demand of sensors is increasing, especially in-tire sensors. Tire parameters are essential for vehicle dynamic control, including tire pressure, tire temperature, slip angle, longitudinal force, etc.. The diversification and growth of in-tire sensors require adequate power supply. Traditionally, embedded batteries are used to power sensors in tire, however, they must be replaced periodically because of the limited energy storage. The power limitation of the batteries would reduce the real-time data transmission frequency and deteriorate the vehicle safety. Heightened interest focuses on generating power through energy harvesting systems in replace of the batteries. Current in-tire energy harvesting devices include piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrostatic and electromechanical mechanism, whose energy sources include tire deformations, vibrations and rotations.
Technical Paper

A Novel Three-Planetary-Gear Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain for Tracked Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1003
Tracked vehicles are widely used for agriculture, construction and many other areas. Due to high emissions, hybrid electric driveline has been applied to tracked vehicles. The hybrid powertrain design for the tracked vehicle has been researched for years. Different from wheeled vehicles, the tracked vehicle not only requires high mobility while straight driving, but also pursues strong steering performance. The paper takes the hybrid track-type dozers (TTDs) as an example and proposes an optimal design of a novel power-split powertrain for TTDs. The commercial hybrid TTD usually adopts the series hybrid powertrain, and sometimes with an extra steering mechanism, which has led to low efficiency and made the structure more complicated. The proposed three-planetary-gear power-split hybrid powertrain can overcome the problems above by utilizing the characteristics of planetary gear sets.
Technical Paper

An SVM-Based Method Combining AEB and Airbag Systems to Reduce Injury of Unbelted Occupants

2018-04-03
2018-01-1171
An autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system can detect emergency conditions using sensors (e.g., radar and camera) to automatically activate the braking actuator without driver input. However, during the hard braking phase, crash conditions for the restraint system can easily change (e.g., vehicle velocity and occupant position), causing an out-of-position (OOP) phenomenon, especially for unbelted occupants entering the airbag deployment range, which may lead to more severe injuries than in a normal position. A critical step in reducing the injury of unbelted occupants would be to design an AEB system while considering the effect of deployed airbags on the occupants. Thus far, few studies have paid attention to the compatibility between AEB and airbag systems for unbelted occupants. This study aims to provide a method that combines AEB and airbag systems to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities for unbelted occupants.
Technical Paper

Using Shoulder Bolster and Knee Bolster to Achieve Protection Effect Comparable to Seatbelt and Airbag

2018-04-03
2018-01-1170
Seatbelt and airbags provide effective occupant restraint, but are also potential to induce intrusive deformation and submarining injuries in motor vehicle crashes. To address these issues, this study puts forward a new restraint concept that applies restraint loads on shoulders and knees/femurs, i.e., the sturdiest regions of human body, via a combined use of shoulder bolster and knee bolster based on biomechanical computational analysis. The load characteristics of the two bolsters were optimized to obtain protection effectiveness superior to conventional use of seatbelt and airbag. Occupant kinematics and kinetics were taken into account, including the excursions of head, shoulders and knees, the accelerations of head and chest, and the compressions of thorax on several locations on the ribcage. The injury risk of rib fractures was monitored based on the strain levels of ribcage.
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