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Technical Paper

Improving Flow Uniformity in a Diesel Particulate Filter System

In this study, a simulation-based flow optimization of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) system is performed. The geometry and the swirl component of the inlet flow is optimized to improve flow uniformity upstream of the filter and to decrease overall pressure drop. The flow through the system is simulated with Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software from Fluent Inc. The wall-flow filter is modeled with an equivalent porous material. This study only investigates the clean flow. The DPF system is composed of three parts: the inlet diffuser, the filter and the outlet nozzle. In the original system a linear cone joins the inlet and outlet pipes to the cylindrical filter. Due to the large opening angle of this cone, flow separates and creates a recirculation zone between the inlet and the filter. The flow pattern reveals that a large area of the filter is not used: More than 88% of the air flow passes through less that 53% of the area.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Design and Optimization of Automotive Aluminum Cross-Car Beam Assemblies

Nowadays, moving toward more lightweight designs is the key goal of all major automotive industries, and they are always looking for more mass saving replacements. In this study, a new methodology for the design and optimization of cross-car beam (CCB) assemblies is proposed to obtain a more lightweight aluminum design as a substitution for the steel counterpart considering targeted performances. For this purpose, first, topology optimization on a solid aluminum geometry encompassing the entire design space should be carried out to obtain the element density distribution within the model. Reinforcing locations with high element density and eliminating those with density lower than the threshold value result in the conceptual design of the CCB. To attain the final conceptual design, the process of topology optimization and removal of unnecessary elements should be addressed in several steps.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Optimization of Plug Flow Mufflers in Emission Control Systems

Large-scale emergency or off-grid power generation is typically achieved through diesel or natural gas generators. To meet governmental emission requirements, emission control systems (ECS) are required. In operation, effective control over the generator’s acoustic emission is also necessary, and can be accomplished within the ECS system. Plug flow mufflers are commonly used, as they provide a sufficient level of noise attenuation in a compact structure. The key design parameter is the transmission loss of the muffler, as this dictates the level of attenuation at a given frequency. This work implements an analytically decoupled solution, using multiple perforate impedance models, through the transfer matrix method (TMM) to predict the transmission loss based on the muffler geometry. An equivalent finite element model is implemented for numerical simulation. The analytical results and numerical results are then evaluated against experimental data from literature.
Technical Paper

Kinematic Solution and Force Layout of a Roller Pump with Internal Outlets

The article presents a theoretical analysis of a roller pump design and a summary of the experiments. The pump is to provide high pressure for transmission, accessory drive, and other applications. A theoretical model was built to simulate the motion of the rollers and optimize the design. An experiment was conducted to prove the simulation. The mathematical model was built within constraints of rigid body mechanics. Comprehensive kinematic and force analysis was done through differential equations of motion. Obtained quantitative relationships include, on one hand, pump geometry, speed of rotation, and discharge/suction oil pressure, and, on the other hand, torque, dynamic interaction of relatively moving parts, and kinematic parameters of the roller. The model includes dissipate forces to account for hydraulic effects. Modeling these forces is beyond mechanics of solid body and is not considered at this initial stage of research.
Technical Paper

Model Identification and Analysis of a High Performance Hydrostatic Actuation System

A hydrostatic actuation system referred to as the Electro Hydraulic Actuator (EHA) has been designed and prototyped. In this paper, a mathematical model of the EHA is reviewed and analyzed. This theoretical analysis is supported by open-loop experimental results that indicate the presence of nonlinearities but at a degree that is considerably less than that of conventional hydraulic systems with servo-valves. The behavior of the system can be approximated as piece-wise linear with the damping ratio and natural frequency changing according to a piece-wise operating region. The EHA model is used in conjunction with experimentation and numerical optimization for quantifying the influence of unknown parameters in this system. A parametric model for the EHA is subsequently proposed and validated.
Technical Paper

Foamability of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPVs) with Various Physical Blowing Agents (PBAs)

Thermoplastic Vulcanizate (TPV) is a special class of Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs) made of a rubber/plastic polymer mixture in which the rubber phase is highly vulcanized. It is prepared by melt mixing a thermoplastic with an elastomer and by in-situ crosslinking of the rubber phase. Currently, TPV is replacing EPDM rubber dramatically because of the impressive advantages for automotive sealing applications. Some of the advantages of TPV compared to that of EPDM rubber are good gloss, recyclability, improved colorability, shorter cycle time and design flexibility. The development of TPV foaming technology is to fulfill the requirement of achieving lower cost, lighter weight and better fuel economy. Foaming of TPV has not been investigated extensively.
Technical Paper

Development and Calibration of One Dimensional Engine Model for Hardware-In-The-Loop Applications

The present paper aims at developing an innovative procedure to create a one-dimensional (1D) real-time capable simulation model for a heavy-duty diesel engine. The novelty of this approach is the use of the top-level engine configuration, test cell measurement data, and manufacturer maps as opposite to common practice of utilizing a detailed 1D engine model. The objective is to facilitate effective model adjustments and hence further increase the application of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulations in powertrain development. This work describes the development of Fast Running Model (FRM) in GT-SUITE simulation software. The cylinder and gas-path modeling and calibration are described in detail. The results for engine performance and exhaust emissions produced satisfactory agreement with both steady-state and transient experimental data.
Journal Article

PSO-Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Automotive Assemblies

Widely used in automotive industry, lightweight metallic structures are a key contributor to fuel efficiency and reduced emissions of vehicles. Lightweight structures are traditionally designed through employing the material distribution techniques sequentially. This approach often leads to non-optimal designs due to constricting the design space in each step of the design procedure. The current study presents a novel Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) framework developed to address this issue. Topology, topography, and gauge optimization techniques are employed in the development of design modules and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is linked to the MDO framework to ensure efficient searching in large design spaces often encountered in automotive applications. The developed framework is then further tailored to the design of an automotive Cross-Car Beam (CCB) assembly.