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Technical Paper

Application of Monte Carlo Analysis to Life Cycle Assessment

1999-03-01
1999-01-0011
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is commonly used to measure the environmental and economic impacts of engineering projects and/or products. However, there is some uncertainty associated with any LCA study. The LCA inventory analysis generally relies on imperfect data in addition to further uncertainties created by the assessment process itself. It is necessary to measure the effects that data and process uncertainty have on the LCA result and to communicate the level of uncertainty to those making decisions based on the LCA. To accomplish this, a systematic and rigorous means to assess the overall uncertainty in LCA results is required. This paper demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo Analysis to track and measure the propagation of uncertainty in LCA studies. The Monte Carlo technique basically consists of running repeated assessments using random input values chosen from a specified probable range.
Technical Paper

Dent Resistance of Medium Scale Aluminum Structural Assemblies

2001-03-05
2001-01-0757
This work outlines the evaluation of static and dynamic dent resistance of medium scale structural assemblies fabricated using AA6111 and AA5754. The assemblies fabricated attempt to mimic common automotive hood designs allowing for a parametric study of the support spacing, sheet thickness and panel curvature. Closure panels of AA6111, of two thicknesses (0.8, and 0.9mm), are bonded to re-usable inner panels fabricated using AA5754 to form the structural assemblies tested. While normal practice would use the same alloy for both the inner and the outer, in the current work, AA5754 was adopted for ease of welding. Numerical simulations were performed using LS DYNA. A comparison of experimental and numerically simulated results is presented. The study attempts to establish an understanding of the relationship between structural support conditions and resulting dent depths for both static and dynamic loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Electromagnetic Forming of Aluminum Alloy Sheet

2001-03-05
2001-01-0824
Electromagnetic forming of aluminum alloys provides improved forming limits, minimal springback and rapid implementation. The ability to predict the minimum energy required in electromagnetic forming is essential in developing an efficient process. Understanding the development of the strain distribution over time in the blank is also highly desired. A numerical model is needed that offers insight into these areas and the electromagnetic forming process in general that cannot easily be extracted from experiments. To address these concerns, ANSYS/EMAG is used to model the time varying currents that are discharged through the coil in order to obtain the transient magnetic forces acting on the blank. The body forces caused by electromagnetic induction are then used as the boundary condition to model the high velocity deformation of the blank with LS-DYNA, an explicit dynamic finite element code.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Small Scale Formability Results on Large Scale Parts: Aluminum Alloy Tailor Welded Blanks

2001-03-05
2001-01-0823
This paper investigates the application of standard formability testing results for aluminum alloy tailor welded blanks (TWB) to full size stampings. The limit strains obtained from formability testing are compared to measured strains in a larger scale part. The measured strains in the full scale part are also compared to predictions from finite element simulation.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Testing of Sheet Metals Subject to Uniaxial Tension-Compression

2001-03-05
2001-01-1321
The paper describes the fabrication and testing of thin sheet metal uniaxial fatigue specimens that have been laminated to prevent buckling. When hot or cold rolled metal thicknesses are below 5 mm, the usual fatigue specimens, having a uniform gauge length of 7.5 mm or more, buckle in the short life region (∼10000 cycles) of strain-life testing. For thinner materials, non-standard specimen designs or anti-buckling guides have been used, but each of these solutions requires additional instrumentation. The results presented in this paper show that laminating multiple sheets of material together to increase the specimen's effective thickness raises the strain level for the onset of buckling of the standard uniaxial specimen. Constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests extending into the high-strain short-life region were performed. Fatigue life data for multiple layer specimens were in good agreement with those obtained for single layer specimens.
Technical Paper

Damage Characterization and Damage Percolation Modelling in Aluminum Alloy Sheet

2000-03-06
2000-01-0773
Tessellation methods have been applied to characterize second phase particle fields and the degree of clustering present in AA 5754 and 5182 automotive sheet alloys. A model of damage development within these materials has been developed using a damage percolation approach based on measured particle distributions. The model accepts tessellated particle fields in order to capture the spatial distributions of particles, as well as nearest neighbour and cluster parameter data. The model demonstrates how damage initiates and percolates within particle clusters in a stable fashion for the majority of the deformation history. Macro-cracking leading to final failure occurs as a chain reaction with catastrophic void linkage triggered once linkage beyond three or more clusters of voids takes place.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of the Autoignition Delay in a Diesel-Like Environment by the Conditional Moment Closure Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0200
The autoignition delay of a turbulent methane jet in a Diesel-like environment is calculated by the conditional moment closure(CMC) model. Methane is injected into hot air in a constant volume chamber under various temperatures and pressures. Detailed chemical reaction mechanisms are implemented with turbulence-chemistry interaction treated by the first order CMC. The CMC model solves the conditional mean species mass fraction and temperature equations with the source term given in terms of the conditional mean quantities. The flow and mixing field are calculated by the transient SIMPLE algorithm with the k -ε model and the assumed beta function pdf. The CMC equations are solved by the fractional step method which sequentially treats the transport and chemical reaction terms in each time step. The predictions in quiescent homogeneous mixture are presented to evaluate the effects of turbulence in jet ignition.
Technical Paper

Weld Failure in Formability Testing of Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks

2001-03-05
2001-01-0090
The present work investigates weld failure modes during formability tests of multi-gauge aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs). The limiting dome height test is used to evaluate formability of TWBs. Three gauge combinations utilizing aluminum alloy 5754 sheets are considered (2 to 1 mm, 1.6 to 1 mm and 2 to 1.6 mm). Three weld orientations have been considered: transverse, longitudinal and 45°. Interaction of several factors determines the type of failure that occurs in a TWB specimen. These factors are weld orientation, morphology and distribution of weld defects, and the magnitude of constraint imposed by the thicker sheet to the thin sheet. The last factor depends on the difference in thickness of the sheet pair and is usually expressed in terms of gauge ratio. In general TWBs show two different types of fracture: weld failure and failure of the thin aluminum sheet. Only the former will be discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Air-to-fuel Ratio Modulation Experiments over a Pd/Rh Three-way Catalyst

2001-09-24
2001-01-3539
The benefits of deliberately modulating air-to-fuel ratio over a three-way catalyst are disputed. In this work, engine test cell experiments were carried out to assess the performance of a warmed-up Pd/Rh three-way catalyst. The objectives were threefold: first, to determine the best mode of operation; second, to determine if air-to-fuel ratio modulation enhances robustness to transient air-to-fuel ratio disturbances; third, to determine if the conversion efficiency can be manipulated by controlling the shape of the air-to-fuel ratio oscillation. It was observed that the highest conversion efficiency is obtained using a steady air-to-fuel ratio just rich of stoichiometric; however, this mode of operation lacks robustness with respect to transient disturbances and UEGO sensor errors. Robustness can be improved using an oscillating air-to-fuel ratio, but with a sacrifice in peak conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Denting of Paint Baked AA6111 Panels: Comparison of Finite Element Predictions and Experiments

2001-10-16
2001-01-3047
This work presents comparisons of finite element model predictions of static and dynamic denting with experimental results. Panels were stamped from 0.81, 0.93 and 1.00mm AA6111-T4 and then paint-baked to produce representative automotive outer body panels. Each type of panel was statically and dynamically dented at three locations using a 25.4mm steel ball. Static denting was accomplished with incremental loading of 22.24N loads up to a maximum of 244.48N. Dynamic denting was accomplished by dropping the steel ball from heights ranging from 200mm to 1200mm. Multi-stage finite element analysis was performed using LS-DYNA1 and ABAQUS2 to predict the entire process of forming, spring-back, denting and final spring-back of the dented panels. The predicted results show good correlation with the experiments, but also highlight the sensitivity of the predictions to formulation of the finite element problem.
Journal Article

Estimating the Strain-Based FLC of a Tube from Straight Tube Hydroforming Experiments and Numerical Models

2008-04-14
2008-01-1442
Abstract The Extended Stress-Based Forming Limit Curve (XSFLC) failure criterion has been shown to provide good qualitative and quantitative predictions of failure (necking) in straight tube hydro forming when the on the level of end-feed (EF) used during hydro forming, the failure criterion has a tendency to over predict failure pressure at low Keeler-Brazier (K-B) approximation is used to define the XSFLC failure curve. Depending EF and under predict failure pressure for high EF. The over/under predictions suggest that the strain-space εFLC, which the XSFLC is based on, has too high of a plane-strain intercept (FLCo), when it is obtained using the K-B approximation (developed for sheet metal).
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation into the Effects of Bending Boost and Hydroforming End-Feed on the Hydroformability of DP600 Tube

2005-04-11
2005-01-0094
The work presented in this paper utilizes advanced FE models of the pre-bending and hydroforming process to investigate the effect of bending boost and hydroforming end-feed on the hydroformability of a tube. A model of a rotary-draw tube bender was used to simulate pre-bending of DP600 tube after which models of hydroforming of the pre-bent tube were run with various levels of end-feed. By varying bending boost from low (LB), medium (MB) and high (HB), consistent trends in the strain and thickness distribution within the pre-bent tubes were observed. Three end-feed levels were simulated and showed that an increase in end-feed improved formability during hydroforming. The sensitivity of the models to bending boost was shown.
Technical Paper

Damage and Formability of AKDQ and High Strength DP600 Steel Tubes

2005-04-11
2005-01-0092
Using standard tensile testing methods, the material properties of AKDQ and DP600 steels tubes along the axial direction were determined. A novel in-situ optical strain mapping system ARAMIS® was utilized to evaluate the strain distribution during tensile testing along the axial direction. Microstructural and damage characterization was carried out using microscopy and image analysis techniques to compare the damage evolution and formability of both materials. Failure in both steels was observed to occur via a ductile failure mode. AKDQ was found to be the more formable material as it can achieve higher strains, total elongations and thinning prior to failure than the higher strength DP600.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Hybrid Control Strategy Development

2006-04-03
2006-01-0214
Supervisory control strategies for a hybrid fuel cell powertrain are developed and simulated using Simulink models and the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The control strategy selects the power splitting ratio between a 65kW Hydrogenics fuel cell power module and a 70kW Cobasys Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery pack. Simple control algorithms targeting a battery pack State of Charge (SOC), or maximizing the instantaneous powertrain efficiency are initially considered and analyzed. A comprehensive control strategy optimizing powertrain efficiency, vehicle performance, emissions, and long-term reliability is then developed and simulated. The simulated vehicle using the comprehensive control strategy with reliability considerations exhibits a 21% mileage improvement as compared to a simple rule-based control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability through Integrated Active Steering and Differential Braking

2006-04-03
2006-01-1022
This paper proposes a vehicle performance/safety method using combined active steering and differential braking to achieve yaw stability and rollover avoidance. The advantages and disadvantages of active steering and differential braking control methods are identified under a variety of input signals, such as J-turn, sinusoidal, and fishhook inputs by using the implemented linear 4 DOF model. Also, the nonlinear model of the vehicle is evaluated and verified through individual and integrated controller. Each controller gives the correction steering angle and correction moment to the simplified steering and braking actuators. The integrated active steering and differential braking control are shown to be most efficient in achieving yaw stability and rollover avoidance, while active steering and differential braking control has been shown to improve the vehicle performance and safety only in yaw stability and rollover avoidance, respectively.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Hybrid Powertrain Design Approach for a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox

2006-04-03
2006-01-0744
A fuel cell-battery hybrid powertrain SUV vehicle is designed using an optimized model-based design process. Powertrain and fuel storage components selected include a 65 kW Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) power module, two 67 kW electric traction motors, a 35 MPa compressed hydrogen storage tank, a 70 kW nickel metal hydride battery pack, and a University of Waterloo in-house DC/DC converter design. Hardware control uses two controllers, a main supervisory controller and a subsystem controller in addition to any embedded component control modules. Two key innovations of this work include the hybrid control strategy and the DC/DC converter. The final powertrain characteristics are expected to meet a set of Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS).
Technical Paper

Effect of End-feed in Hydroforming of Straight and Pre-bent High Strength and Advanced High Strength Steel Tubes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0544
One of the major concerns preventing wider utilization of high strength steels (HSS) and advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in hydroforming is their inherent lower formability, compared to conventional mild steels. The application of the axial forces on the tube ends during a hydroforming operation is often referred to as end-feed, and can facilitate deformation of the tube by postponing failure. This research examines the effect of end-feed on the formability of HSS and AHSS tubes during hydroforming. Through simulation, straight and pre-bent tubes are hydroformed at different levels of end-feed for three materials: DDQ, HSLA350 and DP600.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Optimization of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Powertrain

2007-04-16
2007-01-1069
A fuel cell hybrid powertrain design is implemented and optimized by the University of Waterloo Alternative Fuels Team for the ChallengeX competition. A comprehensive set of bench-top and in-vehicle validation results are used to generate accurate fuel cell vehicle models for SIL/HIL control strategy testing and tuning. The vehicle is brought to a “99% buy-off” level of production readiness, and a detailed crashworthiness analysis is performed. The vehicle performance is compared to Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS).
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

2007-04-16
2007-01-0697
A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

An Active Control Device Based on Differential Braking for Articulated Steer Vehicles

2006-10-31
2006-01-3568
In this study, application of differential braking strategy to remove the oscillatory instability or snaking behavior of an articulated steer vehicle is presented. First, a linearized model of the vehicle is described that is used to represent the equations of motion in the state-space form. Then, this model is utilized for designing a sliding mode controller to adjust the differential braking on the rear axle to stabilize the vehicle during the snaking. The performance of the resulting active control system is evaluated in different driving conditions by using the linearized model. Finally, the control system is incorporated into a virtual prototype of the vehicle in ADAMS, and its operation is examined. The results from the linear model analysis and simulations in ADAMS are reasonably consistent.
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