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Journal Article

Derivation of Effective Strain-Life Data, Crack Closure Parameters and Effective Crack Growth Data from Smooth Specimen Fatigue Tests

Small crack growth from notches under variable amplitude loading requires that crack opening stress be followed on a cycle by cycle basis and taken into account in making fatigue life predictions. The use of constant amplitude fatigue life data that ignores changes in crack opening stress due to high stress overloads in variable amplitude fatigue leads to non-conservative fatigue life predictions. Similarly fatigue life predictions based on small crack growth calculations for cracks growing from flaws in notches are non-conservative when constant amplitude crack growth data are used. These non-conservative predictions have, in both cases, been shown to be due to severe reductions in fatigue crack closure arising from large (overload or underload) cycles in a typical service load history.
Journal Article

Predicting Failure during Sheared Edge Stretching Using a Damage-Based Model for the Shear-Affected Zone

Hole expansion of a dual phase steel, DP600, was numerically investigated using a damage-based constitutive law to predict failure. The parameters governing void nucleation and coalescence were identified from an extensive review of the x-ray micro-tomography data available in the literature to ensure physically-sound predictions of damage evolution. A recently proposed technique to experimentally quantify work-hardening and damage in the shear-affected zone is incorporated into the damage model to enable fracture predictions of holes with sheared edges. Finite-element simulations of a hole expansion test with a conical punch were performed for both a punched and milled hole edge condition and the predicted hole expansion ratios are in very good agreement with the experiment values reported by several researchers.
Technical Paper

A Review Study of Methods for Lithium-ion Battery Health Monitoring and Remaining Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Due to the high power and energy density and also relative safety, lithium ion batteries are receiving increasing acceptability in industrial applications especially in transportation systems with electric traction such as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. In this regard, to ensure performance reliability, accurate modeling of calendar life of such batteries is a necessity. In fact, potential failure of Li-ion battery packs remains a barrier to commercialization. Battery pack life is a critical feature to warranty and maintenance planning for hybrid vehicles, and will require adaptive control systems to account for the loss in vehicle range, and loss in battery charge and discharge efficiency. Failure not only results in large replacement costs, but also potential safety concerns such as overheating or short circuiting which may lead to fires.
Journal Article

Impact Testing of a Hot-Formed B-Pillar with Tailored Properties - Experiments and Simulation

This paper presents the numerical validation of the impact response of a hot formed B-pillar component with tailored properties. A laboratory-scale B-pillar tool is considered with integral heating and cooling sections in an effort to locally control the cooling rate of an austenitized blank, thereby producing a part with tailored microstructures to potentially improve the impact response of these components. An instrumented falling-weight drop tower was used to impact the lab-scale B-pillars in a modified 3-point bend configuration to assess the difference between a component in the fully hardened (martensitic) state and a component with a tailored region (consisting of bainite and ferrite). Numerical models were developed using LS-DYNA to simulate the forming and thermal history of the part to estimate the final thickness and strain distributions as well as the predicted microstructures.
Technical Paper

Damage and Formability of AKDQ and High Strength DP600 Steel Tubes

Using standard tensile testing methods, the material properties of AKDQ and DP600 steels tubes along the axial direction were determined. A novel in-situ optical strain mapping system ARAMIS® was utilized to evaluate the strain distribution during tensile testing along the axial direction. Microstructural and damage characterization was carried out using microscopy and image analysis techniques to compare the damage evolution and formability of both materials. Failure in both steels was observed to occur via a ductile failure mode. AKDQ was found to be the more formable material as it can achieve higher strains, total elongations and thinning prior to failure than the higher strength DP600.
Technical Paper

Application of Damage Models in Bending and Hydroforming of Aluminum Alloy Tube

This paper examines the application of damage models in tube bending and subsequent hydroforming of AlMg3.5Mn aluminum alloy tubes. An in-house Gurson-based damage model, incorporated within LS-DYNA, has been used for the simulations. The applied damage model contains several void nucleation and growth parameters that must be determined for each material. A simpler straight tube hydroforming process was considered first to check the damage parameters and predicted ductility. Then the model was applied to a sequence of bending and hydroforming. The damage history from pre-bending was mapped to the hydroforming stage, to allow prediction of the overall ductility. The applied forming parameters in the simulation were based on data extracted during the experimental tests. Finally, the numerical results were compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Multi-Scale FE/Damage Percolation Modeling of Ductile Damage Evolution in Aluminum Sheet Forming

A so-called damage percolation model is coupled with Gurson-based finite element (FE) approach in order to accommodate the high strain gradients and localized ductile damage. In doing so, void coalescence and final failure are suppressed in Gurson-based FE modeling while a measured second phase particle field is mapped onto the most damaged mesh area so that percolation modeling can be performed to capture ductile fracture in real sheet forming operations. It is revealed that void nucleation within particle clusters dominates ductile fracture in aluminum alloy sheet forming. Coalescence among several particle clusters triggered final failure of materials. A stretch flange forming is simulated with the coupled modeling.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Robust Lane Marking Detection and Tracking for Degraded Lane Markings

Robust lane marking detection remains a challenge, particularly in temperate climates where markings degrade rapidly due to winter conditions and snow removal efforts. In previous work, dynamic Bayesian networks with heuristic features were used with the feature distributions trained using semi-supervised expectation maximization, which greatly reduced sensitivity to initialization. This work has been extended in three important respects. First, the tracking formulation used in previous work has been corrected to prevent false positives in situations where only poor RANSAC hypotheses were generated. Second, the null hypothesis is reformulated to guarantee that detected hypotheses satisfy a minimum likelihood. Third, the computational requirements have been greatly reduced by computing an upper bound on the marginal likelihood of all part hypotheses upon generation and rejecting parts with an upper bound less likely than the null hypothesis.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Denting of Paint Baked AA6111 Panels: Comparison of Finite Element Predictions and Experiments

This work presents comparisons of finite element model predictions of static and dynamic denting with experimental results. Panels were stamped from 0.81, 0.93 and 1.00mm AA6111-T4 and then paint-baked to produce representative automotive outer body panels. Each type of panel was statically and dynamically dented at three locations using a 25.4mm steel ball. Static denting was accomplished with incremental loading of 22.24N loads up to a maximum of 244.48N. Dynamic denting was accomplished by dropping the steel ball from heights ranging from 200mm to 1200mm. Multi-stage finite element analysis was performed using LS-DYNA1 and ABAQUS2 to predict the entire process of forming, spring-back, denting and final spring-back of the dented panels. The predicted results show good correlation with the experiments, but also highlight the sensitivity of the predictions to formulation of the finite element problem.
Technical Paper

Dent Resistance of Medium Scale Aluminum Structural Assemblies

This work outlines the evaluation of static and dynamic dent resistance of medium scale structural assemblies fabricated using AA6111 and AA5754. The assemblies fabricated attempt to mimic common automotive hood designs allowing for a parametric study of the support spacing, sheet thickness and panel curvature. Closure panels of AA6111, of two thicknesses (0.8, and 0.9mm), are bonded to re-usable inner panels fabricated using AA5754 to form the structural assemblies tested. While normal practice would use the same alloy for both the inner and the outer, in the current work, AA5754 was adopted for ease of welding. Numerical simulations were performed using LS DYNA. A comparison of experimental and numerically simulated results is presented. The study attempts to establish an understanding of the relationship between structural support conditions and resulting dent depths for both static and dynamic loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Damage Characterization and Damage Percolation Modelling in Aluminum Alloy Sheet

Tessellation methods have been applied to characterize second phase particle fields and the degree of clustering present in AA 5754 and 5182 automotive sheet alloys. A model of damage development within these materials has been developed using a damage percolation approach based on measured particle distributions. The model accepts tessellated particle fields in order to capture the spatial distributions of particles, as well as nearest neighbour and cluster parameter data. The model demonstrates how damage initiates and percolates within particle clusters in a stable fashion for the majority of the deformation history. Macro-cracking leading to final failure occurs as a chain reaction with catastrophic void linkage triggered once linkage beyond three or more clusters of voids takes place.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Variable Amplitude Strain Histories

This paper presents a model for fatigue life prediction for metals subjected to variable amplitude service loading. The model, which is based on crack growth and crack closure mechanisms for short fatigue cracks, incorporates a strain-based damage parameter, EΔε*, determined from the effective or open part of a strain cycle along with a fatigue resistance curve that takes the form: EΔε* = A(Nf)b, where E is the elastic modulus, Nf is the number of cycles to failure, and A and b are experimentally determined material constants. The fatigue resistance curve is generated for a SAE 1045 steel and the model is used successfully to predict the fatigue lives of smooth axial specimens subjected to two variable amplitude strain histories. The model is also used to predict the magnitude of non-damaging cycles that can be omitted from the strain histories to accelerate fatigue testing.