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Technical Paper

Impact of Temperature on the A123 Li-Ion Battery Performance and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Range

2013-04-08
2013-01-1521
Within the last decade, the automotive industry has made major progress toward the electrification of drive trains and application of electrochemical power sources. Among available storage solutions, Li-ion batteries are considered as the most attractive and are set to be used in the next generation of hybrid and electric vehicles. This is due to their superiority in energy density, power density, and low self-discharge and high cycle life compared to other chemistries. However, there are some limitations associated with Li-ion battery; among them is the operating temperature range. Any deviation from a narrow temperature range may result in low overall performance and potential degradation of the cells. In this paper, impact of ambient temperature on the A123 Li-ion batteries performance is investigated. A123 cells have been tested under constant charge-discharge cycles, hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests and also standard drive cycle tests.
Journal Article

Derivation of Effective Strain-Life Data, Crack Closure Parameters and Effective Crack Growth Data from Smooth Specimen Fatigue Tests

2013-04-08
2013-01-1779
Small crack growth from notches under variable amplitude loading requires that crack opening stress be followed on a cycle by cycle basis and taken into account in making fatigue life predictions. The use of constant amplitude fatigue life data that ignores changes in crack opening stress due to high stress overloads in variable amplitude fatigue leads to non-conservative fatigue life predictions. Similarly fatigue life predictions based on small crack growth calculations for cracks growing from flaws in notches are non-conservative when constant amplitude crack growth data are used. These non-conservative predictions have, in both cases, been shown to be due to severe reductions in fatigue crack closure arising from large (overload or underload) cycles in a typical service load history.
Journal Article

Physics-Based Models, Sensitivity Analysis, and Optimization of Automotive Batteries

2013-10-14
2013-01-2560
The analysis of nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery performance is very important for automotive researchers and manufacturers. The performance of a battery can be described as a direct consequence of various chemical and physical phenomena taking place inside the container. In this paper, a physics-based model of a Ni-MH battery will be presented. To analyze its performance, the efficiency of the battery is chosen as the performance measure, which is defined as the ratio of the energy output from the battery and the energy input to the battery while charging. Parametric sensitivity analysis will be used to generate sensitivity information for the state variables of the model. The generated information will be used to showcase how sensitivity information can be used to identify unique model behavior and how it can be used to optimize the capacity of the battery. The results will be validated using a finite difference formulation.
Journal Article

Predicting Failure during Sheared Edge Stretching Using a Damage-Based Model for the Shear-Affected Zone

2013-04-08
2013-01-1166
Hole expansion of a dual phase steel, DP600, was numerically investigated using a damage-based constitutive law to predict failure. The parameters governing void nucleation and coalescence were identified from an extensive review of the x-ray micro-tomography data available in the literature to ensure physically-sound predictions of damage evolution. A recently proposed technique to experimentally quantify work-hardening and damage in the shear-affected zone is incorporated into the damage model to enable fracture predictions of holes with sheared edges. Finite-element simulations of a hole expansion test with a conical punch were performed for both a punched and milled hole edge condition and the predicted hole expansion ratios are in very good agreement with the experiment values reported by several researchers.
Technical Paper

The University of Waterloo Alternative Fuels Team's Approach to EcoCAR 2

2012-09-10
2012-01-1761
A series plug-in hybrid electric powertrain with all-wheel drive is designed using real-world drive cycles as part of the EcoCAR 2 competition. A stock 2013 Chevrolet Malibu Eco is being re-engineered to reduce fuel consumption and emissions while improving consumer acceptability. Waterloo utilizes a 18.9 kWh A123 energy storage system (ESS), which powers two 105 kW TM4 traction motors. A 2.4 L LE9 General Motors coupled to a 105 kW TM4 motor provides range extending performance. Each step of the design process is discussed, including a novel approach to powertrain selection and controls requirement selection that uses real-world drive cycles. The mechanical integration and unique ESS design is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Fidelity Series-Hybrid Electric Vehicle Model using a Mathematics-Based Approach

2011-05-17
2011-39-7201
The recent increase in oil prices and environmental concerns have attracted various research efforts on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which provide promising alternatives to conventional engine-powered vehicles with better fuel economy and fewer emissions. To speed up the design and prototyping processes of new HEVs, a method that automatically generates mathematics equations governing the vehicle system response in an optimized symbolic form is desirable. To achieve this goal, we employed MapleSimTM, a new physical modeling tool developed by Maplesoft Inc., to develop the multi-domain model of a series-HEV, utilizing the symbolic computing algorithms of Maple software package to generate an optimized set of governing equations. The HEV model consists of a mean-value internal combustion engine (ICE), a chemistry-based Ni-MH battery pack, and a multibody vehicle model. Simulations are then used to demonstrate the performance of the developed HEV system.
Technical Paper

A Review Study of Methods for Lithium-ion Battery Health Monitoring and Remaining Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0125
Due to the high power and energy density and also relative safety, lithium ion batteries are receiving increasing acceptability in industrial applications especially in transportation systems with electric traction such as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. In this regard, to ensure performance reliability, accurate modeling of calendar life of such batteries is a necessity. In fact, potential failure of Li-ion battery packs remains a barrier to commercialization. Battery pack life is a critical feature to warranty and maintenance planning for hybrid vehicles, and will require adaptive control systems to account for the loss in vehicle range, and loss in battery charge and discharge efficiency. Failure not only results in large replacement costs, but also potential safety concerns such as overheating or short circuiting which may lead to fires.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior of Two Commercial Li-Ion Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1840
In electrified vehicle applications, the heat generated of lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells may significantly affect the vehicle range and state of health (SOH) of the pack. Therefore, a major design task is creation of a battery thermal management system with suitable control and cooling strategies. To this end, the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells at various temperatures and operating conditions should be quantified. In this paper, two different commercial pouch cells for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are studied through comprehensive thermal performance tests. This study employs a fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of tests required to characterize the behavior of fresh cells while minimizing the effects of ageing. At each test point, the effects of ambient temperature and charge/discharge rate on several types of cell efficiencies and surface heat generation are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Evaluation of Li-Ion Battery Performance Based on the Electric Vehicle Field Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-1848
In this paper, initial results of Li-ion battery performance characterization through field tests are presented. A fully electrified Ford Escape that is equipped by three Li-ion battery packs (LiFeMnPO4) including an overall 20 modules in series is employed. The vehicle is in daily operation and data of driving including the powertrain and drive cycles as well as the charging data are being transferred through CAN bus to a data logger installed in the vehicle. A model of the vehicle is developed in the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software based on the available technical specification of the vehicle components. In this model, a simple resistive element in series with a voltage source represents the battery. Battery open circuit voltage (OCV) and internal resistance in charge and discharge mode are estimated as a function of the state of charge (SOC) from the collected test data.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Optimization Techniques for Lithium-Ion Battery Model Parameter Estimation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1851
Due to rising fuel prices and environmental concerns, Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have been gaining market share as fuel-efficient, environmentally friendly alternatives. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in EV and HEV applications because of their high power and energy densities. During controls development of HEVs and EVs, hardware-in-the-loop simulations involving real-time battery models are commonly used to simulate a battery response in place of a real battery. One physics-based model which solves in real-time is the reduced-order battery model developed by Dao et al. [1], which is based on the isothermal model by Newman [2] incorporating concentrated solution theory and porous electrode theory [3]. The battery models must be accurate for effective control; however, if the battery parameters are unknown or change due to degradation, a method for estimating the battery parameters to update the model is required.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Air Conditioning Impact on the Electric Vehicle Range and Li-Ion Battery Life

2014-04-01
2014-01-1853
Despite significant progress toward application of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicles, there are still major concerns about the range of electric vehicles and battery life. Depending on the climate of the region where the vehicle is in use, auxiliary loads could also play a significant role on the battery performance and durability. In this paper, the effect of air conditioning (AC) load on the electric range and Li-ion battery life is evaluated. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model for the vehicle cabin is developed and integrated to a battery model. The thermodynamic model takes the ambient conditions, solar load, and the vehicle drive cycle as inputs and calculates the instantaneous cabin temperature and humidity. The battery model, which represents a Li-on battery pack installed on a fully electrified Ford Escape 2009, consists of a voltage source in series with a lump resistance, a thermal sub-model, and a degradation sub-model to predict the battery capacity fade.
Journal Article

Impact Testing of a Hot-Formed B-Pillar with Tailored Properties - Experiments and Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-0608
This paper presents the numerical validation of the impact response of a hot formed B-pillar component with tailored properties. A laboratory-scale B-pillar tool is considered with integral heating and cooling sections in an effort to locally control the cooling rate of an austenitized blank, thereby producing a part with tailored microstructures to potentially improve the impact response of these components. An instrumented falling-weight drop tower was used to impact the lab-scale B-pillars in a modified 3-point bend configuration to assess the difference between a component in the fully hardened (martensitic) state and a component with a tailored region (consisting of bainite and ferrite). Numerical models were developed using LS-DYNA to simulate the forming and thermal history of the part to estimate the final thickness and strain distributions as well as the predicted microstructures.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Hybrid Powertrain Design Approach for a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox

2006-04-03
2006-01-0744
A fuel cell-battery hybrid powertrain SUV vehicle is designed using an optimized model-based design process. Powertrain and fuel storage components selected include a 65 kW Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) power module, two 67 kW electric traction motors, a 35 MPa compressed hydrogen storage tank, a 70 kW nickel metal hydride battery pack, and a University of Waterloo in-house DC/DC converter design. Hardware control uses two controllers, a main supervisory controller and a subsystem controller in addition to any embedded component control modules. Two key innovations of this work include the hybrid control strategy and the DC/DC converter. The final powertrain characteristics are expected to meet a set of Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS).
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Hybrid Control Strategy Development

2006-04-03
2006-01-0214
Supervisory control strategies for a hybrid fuel cell powertrain are developed and simulated using Simulink models and the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The control strategy selects the power splitting ratio between a 65kW Hydrogenics fuel cell power module and a 70kW Cobasys Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery pack. Simple control algorithms targeting a battery pack State of Charge (SOC), or maximizing the instantaneous powertrain efficiency are initially considered and analyzed. A comprehensive control strategy optimizing powertrain efficiency, vehicle performance, emissions, and long-term reliability is then developed and simulated. The simulated vehicle using the comprehensive control strategy with reliability considerations exhibits a 21% mileage improvement as compared to a simple rule-based control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Damage and Formability of AKDQ and High Strength DP600 Steel Tubes

2005-04-11
2005-01-0092
Using standard tensile testing methods, the material properties of AKDQ and DP600 steels tubes along the axial direction were determined. A novel in-situ optical strain mapping system ARAMIS® was utilized to evaluate the strain distribution during tensile testing along the axial direction. Microstructural and damage characterization was carried out using microscopy and image analysis techniques to compare the damage evolution and formability of both materials. Failure in both steels was observed to occur via a ductile failure mode. AKDQ was found to be the more formable material as it can achieve higher strains, total elongations and thinning prior to failure than the higher strength DP600.
Technical Paper

Application of Damage Models in Bending and Hydroforming of Aluminum Alloy Tube

2004-03-08
2004-01-0835
This paper examines the application of damage models in tube bending and subsequent hydroforming of AlMg3.5Mn aluminum alloy tubes. An in-house Gurson-based damage model, incorporated within LS-DYNA, has been used for the simulations. The applied damage model contains several void nucleation and growth parameters that must be determined for each material. A simpler straight tube hydroforming process was considered first to check the damage parameters and predicted ductility. Then the model was applied to a sequence of bending and hydroforming. The damage history from pre-bending was mapped to the hydroforming stage, to allow prediction of the overall ductility. The applied forming parameters in the simulation were based on data extracted during the experimental tests. Finally, the numerical results were compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Multi-Scale FE/Damage Percolation Modeling of Ductile Damage Evolution in Aluminum Sheet Forming

2004-03-08
2004-01-0742
A so-called damage percolation model is coupled with Gurson-based finite element (FE) approach in order to accommodate the high strain gradients and localized ductile damage. In doing so, void coalescence and final failure are suppressed in Gurson-based FE modeling while a measured second phase particle field is mapped onto the most damaged mesh area so that percolation modeling can be performed to capture ductile fracture in real sheet forming operations. It is revealed that void nucleation within particle clusters dominates ductile fracture in aluminum alloy sheet forming. Coalescence among several particle clusters triggered final failure of materials. A stretch flange forming is simulated with the coupled modeling.
Technical Paper

Damage Characterization and Damage Percolation Modelling in Aluminum Alloy Sheet

2000-03-06
2000-01-0773
Tessellation methods have been applied to characterize second phase particle fields and the degree of clustering present in AA 5754 and 5182 automotive sheet alloys. A model of damage development within these materials has been developed using a damage percolation approach based on measured particle distributions. The model accepts tessellated particle fields in order to capture the spatial distributions of particles, as well as nearest neighbour and cluster parameter data. The model demonstrates how damage initiates and percolates within particle clusters in a stable fashion for the majority of the deformation history. Macro-cracking leading to final failure occurs as a chain reaction with catastrophic void linkage triggered once linkage beyond three or more clusters of voids takes place.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Variable Amplitude Strain Histories

1993-03-01
930400
This paper presents a model for fatigue life prediction for metals subjected to variable amplitude service loading. The model, which is based on crack growth and crack closure mechanisms for short fatigue cracks, incorporates a strain-based damage parameter, EΔε*, determined from the effective or open part of a strain cycle along with a fatigue resistance curve that takes the form: EΔε* = A(Nf)b, where E is the elastic modulus, Nf is the number of cycles to failure, and A and b are experimentally determined material constants. The fatigue resistance curve is generated for a SAE 1045 steel and the model is used successfully to predict the fatigue lives of smooth axial specimens subjected to two variable amplitude strain histories. The model is also used to predict the magnitude of non-damaging cycles that can be omitted from the strain histories to accelerate fatigue testing.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Temperature Gradient (dT/dy) and Temperature Response (dT/dt) of a Prismatic Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell with LiFePO4 Cathode Material

2017-03-28
2017-01-1207
Lithium-ion batteries, which are nowadays common in laptops, cell phones, toys, and other portable electronic devices, are also viewed as a most promising advanced technology for electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs), but battery manufacturers and automakers must understand the performance of these batteries when they are scaled up to the large sizes needed for the propulsion of the vehicle. In addition, accurate thermo-physical property input is crucial to thermal modeling. Therefore, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries for improvement in the design of a thermal management system and also for thermal modeling. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization in terms of measurement of the temperature gradient and temperature response of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration.
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