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Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency Analysis of Active-flow Operations in Diesel Engine Aftertreatment

Experiments are carried out with the diesel particulate filter and oxidation catalyst embedded in the active-flow configurations on a single cylinder diesel engine. The combined use of various active flow control schemes are identified to be capable of shifting the exhaust gas temperature, flow rate, and oxygen concentration to favorable windows for filtration, conversion, and regeneration processes. Empirical and theoretical investigations are performed with a transient one-dimensional single channel aftertreatment model developed in FORTRAN and MATLAB. The influence of the supplemental energy distribution along the length of aftertreatment device is evaluated. The theoretical analysis indicates that the active-flow control schemes have fundamental advantages in optimizing the converter thermal management including reduction in supplemental heating, increase in thermal recuperation, and improving overheating protection.
Technical Paper

Empirical and Theoretical Investigations of Active-flow Control on Diesel Engine After-treatment

Empirical and theoretical studies are made between active-flow control and passive-flow control schemes in investigating the influences of gas flow, heat transfer, chemical reaction, oxygen concentration, and substrate properties. The exhaust active-flow control includes the parallel alternating flow, partial restricting flow, periodic flow reversal, and extended flow stagnation that are found to be especially effective to treat engine exhausts that are difficult to cope with conventional passive-flow converters [1, 2]. The tests are set up on a single cylinder Yanmar engine. Theoretical studies are performed with the one-dimensional transient modeling techniques to analyze the thermal behavior of the diesel after-treatment systems when active flow control schemes are applied.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency Analysis between In-cylinder and External Supplemental Fuel Strategies

Preliminary empirical and modeling analyses are conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency of in-cylinder and external fuel injection strategies and their impact on the energy required to enable diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration for instance. During the tests, a thermal wave that is generated from the engine propagates along the exhaust pipe to the DPF substrate. The thermal response of the exhaust system is recorded with the thermocouple arrays embedded in the exhaust system. To implement the external fuel injection, an array of thermocouples and pressure sensors in the DPF provide the necessary feedback to the control system. The external fuel injection is dynamically adjusted based on the thermal response of the DPF substrate to improve the thermal management and to reduce the supplemental energy. This research intends to quantify the effectiveness of the supplemental energy utilization on aftertreatment enabling.
Technical Paper

Real-time Heat Release Analysis for Model-based Control of Diesel Combustion

A number of cylinder-pressure derived parameters including the crank angles of maximum pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise, and 50% heat released are considered as among the desired feedback for cycle-by-cycle adaptive control of diesel combustion. For real-time computation of these parameters, the heat release analyses based on the first law of thermodynamics are used. This paper intends to identify the operating regions where the simplified heat release approach provides sufficient accuracy for control applications and also highlights those regions where its use can lead to significant errors in the calculated parameters. The effects of the cylinder charge-to-wall heat transfer and the temperature dependence of the specific heat ratio on the model performance are reported. A new computationally efficient algorithm for estimating the crank angle of 50% heat released with adequate accuracy is proposed for computation in real-time.
Technical Paper

A Thermal Analysis of Active-flow Control on Diesel Engine Aftertreatment

One-dimensional transient modeling techniques are adapted to analyze the thermal behavior of lean-burn after-treatment systems when active flow control schemes are applied. The active control schemes include parallel alternating flow, partial restricting flow, and periodic flow reversal (FR) that are found to be especially effective to treat engine exhausts that are difficult to cope with conventional passive flow converters. To diesel particulate filters (DPF), lean NOx traps (LNT), and oxidation converters (OC), the combined use of active flow control schemes are identified to be capable of shifting the exhaust gas temperature, flow rate, and oxygen concentration to more favorable windows for the filtration, conversion, and regeneration processes. Comparison analyses are made between active flow control and passive flow control schemes in investigating the influences of gas flow, heat transfer, chemical reaction, oxygen concentration, and converter properties.
Technical Paper

Boundary Layer Enhanced Thermal Recuperation for Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration under a Periodic Flow Reversal Operation

Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are viable to reduce smoke from diesel engines. An oxidation process is usually required to remove the Particulate Matter (PM) loading from the DPF substrates. In cases when the engine exhaust temperature is insufficient to initiate a thermal regeneration, supplemental energy is commonly applied to raise the exhaust gas and/or the DPF substrate temperatures. A flow reversal (FR) mechanism that traps a high temperature region in the DPF substrate by periodically altering the gas flow directions has been identified to be capable of reducing the supplemental energy and thus to improve the overall thermal efficiency of the engine. However, extended operations with low exhaust temperature lowers the DPF boundary temperatures that defers the regeneration processes. Furthermore, the temperature fluctuations caused by the periodic FR operation also increase the thermal stress in the DPF.
Technical Paper

Transient Response of Minichannel Heat Exchanger Using Al2O3-EG/W Nanofluid

A numerical study is performed to investigate the transient heat transfer and flow characteristics of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles dispersed in 50:50 ethylene glycol/water (EG/W) base fluid in a multipass crossflow minichannel heat exchanger. The time dependent thermal responses of the system in a laminar regime are predicted by solving the conservation equations using the finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm. The transient regime is caused by a step change of nanofluid mass flow rate at the inlet of the minichannel heat exchanger. This step change can be analogous with a thermostat operation. In this study, three volume fractions up to 3 percent of Al2O3 nanoparticles dispersed to the base fluid EG/W are modeled and analyzed. In the numerical simulation, Al2O3-EG/W nanofluid is considered as a homogenous single-phase fluid. An analysis of the transient response for the variation of nanofluids volume concentrations is conducted.
Technical Paper

New MAC Technologies: Fuel Efficiency Effect in Real Driving of the Air Intake Flap Management

Following the development of new technologies in Vehicle Thermal Management aiming to both enhancing the MAC System efficiency and reducing the thermal load to be managed, a prediction tool based on the AMEsim platform was developed at Advanced PD EMEA. This tool is dedicated to predict the effect of the implementation of sensors monitoring both the relative humidity and the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (taking into account passengers' generated moisture and CO2). This model implemented with the usual comfort inputs (CO2 and RH acceptable ranges) considers the system variables influencing the comfort and predicts the increase of both RH and CO2 concentration in the cabin compartment in any driving cycle depending on the number of occupants.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Active and Passive Cooling Systems of a Lithium-Ion Battery Module for Electric Vehicles

In this work, a pseudo three-dimensional coupled thermal-electrochemical model is established to estimate the heat generation and temperature profiles of a lithium ion battery as functions of the state of the discharge. Then, this model is used to investigate the effectiveness of active and passive thermal management systems. The active cooling system utilizes cooling plate and water as the working fluid while the passive cooling system incorporates a phase change material (PCM). The thermal effects of coolant flow rate examined using a computational fluid dynamics model. In the passive cooling system, Paraffin wax used as a heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise. The effect of module size and battery spacing is studied to find the optimal weight of PCM required. The results show that although the active cooling system has the capability to reduce the peak temperatures, it leads to a large temperature difference over the battery module.
Technical Paper

A Novel Hybrid Technique for Thermal Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Used in Electric Vehicle Application

Due to high torque and power density, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has become the most viable candidate for electric vehicle (EV) traction application. However, to obtain such high torque and power density within a compact motor structure can cause a significant temperature rise within the motor while operating. As a result of high temperature rise, permanent magnet demagnetization may even occur within the motor. Thus, PMSM is susceptible to thermal instability. Therefore, to ensure thermal stability during varying operating conditions, thermal analysis is a mandatory procedure in addition to electromagnetic analysis during the design phase of the motor. In this paper, a computationally efficient numerical finite element analysis (FEA) process has been proposed for thermal analysis of PMSM.