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Technical Paper

Effect of Mixing on Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Prediction for Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using a Multi-zone Detailed Kinetics Solver

This research investigates how the handling of mixing and heat transfer in a multi-zone kinetic solver affects the prediction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions for simulations of HCCI engine combustion. A detailed kinetics multi-zone model is now more closely coordinated with the KIVA3V computational fluid dynamics code for simulation of the compression and expansion processes. The fluid mechanics is solved with high spatial and temporal resolution (40,000 cells). The chemistry is simulated with high temporal resolution, but low spatial resolution (20 computational zones). This paper presents comparison of simulation results using this enhanced multi-zone model to experimental data from an isooctane HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion

The three-dimensional CFD codes KIVA-II and KIVA-3 have been used together to study the effects of intake generated in-cylinder flow structure on fuel-air mixing and combustion in a direct injected (DI) Diesel engine. In order to more accurately account for the effect of intake flow on in-cylinder processes, the KIVA-II code has been modified to allow for the use of data from other CFD codes as initial conditions. Simulation of the intake and compression strokes in a heavy-duty four-stroke DI Diesel engine has been carried out using KIVA-3. Flow quantities and thermodynamic field information were then mapped into a computational grid in KIVA-II for use in the study of mixing and combustion. A laminar and turbulent timescale combustion model, as well as advanced spray models, including wave breakup atomization, dynamic drop drag, and spray-wall interaction has been used in KIVA-II.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Computed Spray in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignited Engine with Planar Images

Fuel spray atomization and breakup processes within a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine and outside the engine were modeled using a modified KIVA-3V code with improved spray models. The structures of the predicted sprays were qualitatively compared with planar images. The considered sprays were created by a prototype pressure-swirl injector and the planar images were obtained by laser sheet imaging in an optical DISI engine. In the out-of-engine case, the spray was injected into atmospheric air, and was modeled in a two dimensional bomb. In the engine case, the injection started from 270° ATDC, and full 3-D computations in the same engine were performed. In both cases, two liquid injection pressure conditions were applied, that is, 3.40 MPa and 6.12 MPa. The model gives good prediction of the tip penetration, and external spray shape, but the internal structure prediction has relatively lower accuracy, especially near the spray axis.
Technical Paper

Factors that Affect BSFC and Emissions for Diesel Engines: Part 1 - Presentation of Concepts

The per cylinder displacement in cubic centimeters (PCDICC) vs. brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) have been plotted for both DI and IDI diesel engines. The smallest and largest PCDICC are 25.7 to 2,000,000. It was found for the DI engines that the lowest to the highest (BSFC) ranged from approximately 155 to 450. In terms of ratios these turn out to be about 2.9. Reasons for the increase in BSFC with decrease in PCDICC are presented. Background material are presented to help in explaining the trends experienced. Boundary conditions of the injected fuel as to duration, drop size, and their effect on BSFC, emissions are postulated.
Technical Paper

A Classification of Reciprocating Engine Combustion Systems

Obtaining and maintaining a stratified charge in a practical engine is a difficult problem. Consequently, many approaches have been proposed and reported in the scientific and patent literature. In attempting to assess the most profitable approach for future development work, it is important to group together similar approaches so that one can study their performance as a group. Making such a classification has the additional advantage of helping to standardize terminology used by different investigators. With this thought in mind, a literature study was made and a proposed classification chart prepared for the different engine combustion systems reported in the literature. For the sake of completeness, the finally proposed classification chart includes homogeneous combustion engines as well as heterogeneous combustion engines. Because of their similarity of combustion, rotary engines such as the Wankel engine are considered as “reciprocating” although gas turbines are not included.
Technical Paper


A NEW electronic circuit arrangement added to the electro-optical pyrometer developed at the University of Wisconsin indicates instantaneously the temperature in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The electronic device, which is described in this paper, solves an equation relating true temperature to intensity and wave length of monochromatic radiation from a luminous flame. True flame temperature is charted on an oscillograph as a function of such abscissas as time or crank angle. Several circuits are reviewed which were found unsuited for use with the pyrometer but which may be useful for other applications.
Technical Paper

A Tape Recording and Computer Processing System for Instantaneous Engine Data

The development of a high speed, multichannel data acquisition system is described. A precision magnetic tape recorder is used to record analog data from highly transient phenomena. Analog-to-digital data conversion is performed on a hybrid computer and the digitized data is processed using large, high speed digital computers. A detailed example of the application of the system to the measurement of rates-of-injection, rates-of-heat release, and instantaneous rates-of-heat transfer from the cylinder gases to the cylinder walls in a high speed open-chamber diesel engine is presented.
Technical Paper

Fuel - Engine Research in Universities

The reasons for conducting research in a university are presented and discussed. It is concluded that fuel-engine studies are compatible with these reasons and therefore are well suited for university research. Past studies in this field are summarized and unanswered questions and future topics suitable for university investigation are suggested. Included in the topics discussed are: instrumentation, thermodynamic description of working fluids, fuel vaporization and atomization, combustion, and instantaneous heat transfer and mass flow rates. The steps that need to be taken to ensure continuing university interest in fuel-engine studies are presented.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Crankcase Scavenged, Two-Stroke, SI Engine and Comparisons with Experimental Data

A detailed mathematical model of the thermodynamic events of a crankcase scavenged, two-stroke, SI engine is described. The engine is divided into three thermodynamic systems: the cylinder gases, the crankcase gases, and the inlet system gases. Energy balances, mass continuity equations, the ideal gas law, and thermodynamic property relationships are combined to give a set of coupled ordinary differential equations which describe the thermodynamic states encountered by the systems of the engine during one cycle of operation. A computer program is used to integrate the equations, starting with estimated initial thermodynamic conditions and estimated metal surface temperatures. The program iterates the cycle, adjusting the initial estimates, until the final conditions agree with the beginning conditions, that is, until a cycle results.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Single Cylinder Intake and Exhaust Systems

A detailed description of a numerical method for computing unsteady flows in engine intake and exhaust systems is given. The calculations include the effects of heat transfer and friction. The inclusion of such calculations in a mathematically simulated engine cycle is discussed and results shown for several systems. In particular, the effects of bell-mouth versus plain pipe terminations and the effects of a finite surge tank are calculated. Experimental data on the effect of heat transfer from the back of the intake valve on wave damping are given and show the effect to be negligible. Experimental data on wave damping during the valve closed period and on the temperature rise of the air near the valve are also given.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Validation of Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) for Gas Jet and Sprays

Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a useful approach for the simulation of turbulent flow and combustion processes in internal combustion engines. This study employs the ANSYS Forte CFD package and explores several key and fundamental components of LES, namely, the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models, the numerical schemes used to discretize the transport equations, and the computational mesh. The SGS turbulence models considered include the classic Smagorinsky model and a dynamic structure model. Two numerical schemes for momentum convection, quasi-second-order upwind (QSOU) and central difference (CD), were evaluated. The effects of different computational mesh sizes controlled by both fixed mesh refinement and a solution-adaptive mesh-refinement approach were studied and compared. The LES models are evaluated and validated against several flow configurations that are critical to engine flows, in particular, to fuel injection processes.
Technical Paper

Physical and Chemical Ignition Delay in an operating diesel engine using the hot-motored technique—part II

THE PRESENT WORK uses both the hot-motored technique and a nitrogen technique to obtain three pressure-time records — one without either vaporization or chemical reaction, one with vaporization only, and one with both vaporization and chemical reaction. By comparison of these three records, rates of vaporization and rates of chemical reaction can be determined during the ignition delay period in an operating diesel engine. Such data are shown for different fuels and operating conditions. Estimations are made of the penetration and temperatures existing in the spray.*
Technical Paper

Fuel Vaporization and Ignition Las in Diesel Combustion

AN analysis of phenomena occurring during the ignition delay period is presented. Vaporization of atomized fuel is shown to take place under conditions ranging between single droplet and adiabatic saturation from edge to center of the spray. Mechanisms of vaporization and combustible mixture formation are presented for both cases. Correlation of theoretical analysis with experimental data from both a combustion bomb and diesel engine is presented to establish actual conditions existing during vaporization. Estimates of physical and chemical delays for the engine and bomb are given.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variations and Average Burning Rates in a S. I. Engine

A method of calculating mass burning rates for a single cylinder spark-ignition combustion engine based on experimentally obtained pressure-time diagrams was used to analyze the effects of fuel-air ratio, engine speed, spark timing, load, and cyclic cylinder pressure variations on mass burning rates and engine output. A study of the effects on mass burning rates by cyclic pressure changes showed the low pressure cycles were initially slow burning cycles. Although large cyclic cylinder pressure variations existed in the data the cyclic variations in imep were relatively small.
Technical Paper

The Reaction of Ethane in Spark Ignition Engine Exhaust Gas

This paper describes a method for studying reactions of hydrocarbons in S.I. engine exhaust gases. The reaction of ethane is described using an Arrhenius model (experimentally E = 86,500 cal/mole) for the rate of ethane diappearance and empirical correlations for distributions of the products carbon monoxide, ethylene, formaldehyde, methane, acetylene, and propane as a function of the fraction of ethane reacted. The results show that the nature of partial oxidation products from a nonreactive hydrocarbon may be less desirable from an air pollution viewpoint than the initial hydrocarbon.
Technical Paper

Experimental Instantaneous Heat Fluxes in a Diesel Engine and Their Correlation

By the use of surface thermocouples to measure instantaneous temperatures, the instantaneous heat fluxes are calculated at several positions on the cylinder head and sleeve of a direct injection diesel engine for both motored and fired operation. Existing correlations are shown to be unable to predict these data. An analysis of convective heat transfer in the engine leads to a boundary layer model which adequately correlates the data for motored operation. The extension of this motored correlation to fired operation demonstrates the need for instantaneous local gas velocity and temperature data.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Operation and Design for Minimum Exhaust Emission

The purpose of the tests conducted on a single-cylinder laboratory engine was to determine the mechanism of combustion that affect exhaust emissions and the relationship of those mechanisms to engine design and operating variables. For the engine used in this study, the exhaust emissions were found to have the following dependence on various engine variables. Hydrocarbon emission was reduced by lean operation, increased manifold pressure, retarded spark, increased exhaust temperature, increased coolant temperature, increased exhaust back pressure, and decreased compression ratio. Carbon monoxide emission was affected by air-fuel ratio and premixing the charge. Oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2 is called NOx) emission is primarily a function of the O2 available and the peak temperature attained during the cycle. Decreased manifold pressure and retarded spark decrease NOx emission. Hydrocarbons were found to react to some extent in the exhaust port and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Introduction of Fuel on Performance of a Compression Ignition Engine

An investigation into effects of multiple fuel introduction on isfc, rate-of-pressure rise, ignition delay, and smoothness of P-T diagram was conducted. Work, including pilot and manifold injection and the Vigom process, was conducted in a prechamber, an open chamber, and a Ricardo Comet chamber, all mounted on a CFR crankcase. Results show marked smoothening of the P-T diagram, with slight loss in fuel economy, particularly in the open chamber, and decrease in ignition delay for both high and low cetane fuels, especially at lower engine speeds. Data show that the quantity of preliminary fuel required for best performance changes considerably with cetane number of the fuel and with combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Variable Valve Actuation, Cylinder Deactivation and Injection Strategies for Low-Load RCCI Operation of a Light Duty Engine

While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.