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Technical Paper

Effect of Mixing on Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Prediction for Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using a Multi-zone Detailed Kinetics Solver

This research investigates how the handling of mixing and heat transfer in a multi-zone kinetic solver affects the prediction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions for simulations of HCCI engine combustion. A detailed kinetics multi-zone model is now more closely coordinated with the KIVA3V computational fluid dynamics code for simulation of the compression and expansion processes. The fluid mechanics is solved with high spatial and temporal resolution (40,000 cells). The chemistry is simulated with high temporal resolution, but low spatial resolution (20 computational zones). This paper presents comparison of simulation results using this enhanced multi-zone model to experimental data from an isooctane HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Factors that Affect BSFC and Emissions for Diesel Engines: Part 1 - Presentation of Concepts

The per cylinder displacement in cubic centimeters (PCDICC) vs. brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) have been plotted for both DI and IDI diesel engines. The smallest and largest PCDICC are 25.7 to 2,000,000. It was found for the DI engines that the lowest to the highest (BSFC) ranged from approximately 155 to 450. In terms of ratios these turn out to be about 2.9. Reasons for the increase in BSFC with decrease in PCDICC are presented. Background material are presented to help in explaining the trends experienced. Boundary conditions of the injected fuel as to duration, drop size, and their effect on BSFC, emissions are postulated.
Technical Paper

A Method for Estimating Mileage Improvement and Emission Reductions Achievable by Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

The results of two derivations relating to the fuel economy of hybrid-electric vehicles (vehicles which employ both a heat engine and electric drive system) are presented and their use is illustrated through the examples of the University of Wisconsin and TRW Systems Group hybrid-electric vehicles. The method of mileage estimation employs a specific fuel-consumption versus torque-speed map for the heat engine under study and knowledge of the hybrid-vehicle dynamics and road-load power. The method is easily extended to estimation of emission reductions through use of specific-emission-production versus torque-speed maps and is applicable to hybrid vehicles with other than electrical energy-storage systems.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variations and Average Burning Rates in a S. I. Engine

A method of calculating mass burning rates for a single cylinder spark-ignition combustion engine based on experimentally obtained pressure-time diagrams was used to analyze the effects of fuel-air ratio, engine speed, spark timing, load, and cyclic cylinder pressure variations on mass burning rates and engine output. A study of the effects on mass burning rates by cyclic pressure changes showed the low pressure cycles were initially slow burning cycles. Although large cyclic cylinder pressure variations existed in the data the cyclic variations in imep were relatively small.
Technical Paper

The Reaction of Ethane in Spark Ignition Engine Exhaust Gas

This paper describes a method for studying reactions of hydrocarbons in S.I. engine exhaust gases. The reaction of ethane is described using an Arrhenius model (experimentally E = 86,500 cal/mole) for the rate of ethane diappearance and empirical correlations for distributions of the products carbon monoxide, ethylene, formaldehyde, methane, acetylene, and propane as a function of the fraction of ethane reacted. The results show that the nature of partial oxidation products from a nonreactive hydrocarbon may be less desirable from an air pollution viewpoint than the initial hydrocarbon.
Technical Paper

End-Gas Temperatures, Pressures, Reaction Rates, and Knock

The infrared radiation method of compression and end-gas temperature measurement was applied to the problem of measuring gas temperatures up to the time of knock. Pressure data were taken for each run on a CFR engine with mixtures of isooctane and n-heptane under both knocking and nonknocking conditions. Main engine parameters studied were the intake pressure, intake temperature, and engine speed. The rate and extent of chemical energy release were calculated from the temperature and pressure histories using an energy balance. The computed rates of chemical energy release were correlated to a chain-type kinetic model
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Operation and Design for Minimum Exhaust Emission

The purpose of the tests conducted on a single-cylinder laboratory engine was to determine the mechanism of combustion that affect exhaust emissions and the relationship of those mechanisms to engine design and operating variables. For the engine used in this study, the exhaust emissions were found to have the following dependence on various engine variables. Hydrocarbon emission was reduced by lean operation, increased manifold pressure, retarded spark, increased exhaust temperature, increased coolant temperature, increased exhaust back pressure, and decreased compression ratio. Carbon monoxide emission was affected by air-fuel ratio and premixing the charge. Oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2 is called NOx) emission is primarily a function of the O2 available and the peak temperature attained during the cycle. Decreased manifold pressure and retarded spark decrease NOx emission. Hydrocarbons were found to react to some extent in the exhaust port and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Variable Valve Actuation, Cylinder Deactivation and Injection Strategies for Low-Load RCCI Operation of a Light Duty Engine

While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.
Technical Paper

Highway Fuel Economy Testing of an RCCI Series Hybrid Vehicle

In the current work, a series-hybrid vehicle has been constructed that utilizes a dual-fuel, Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine. The vehicle is a 2009 Saturn Vue chassis and a 1.9L turbo-diesel engine converted to operate with low temperature RCCI combustion. The engine is coupled to a 90 kW AC motor, acting as an electrical generator to charge a 14.1 kW-hr lithium-ion traction battery pack, which powers the rear wheels by a 75 kW drive motor. Full vehicle testing was conducted on chassis dynamometers at the Vehicle Emissions Research Laboratory at Ford Motor Company and at the Vehicle Research Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For this work, the US Environmental Protection Agency Highway Fuel Economy Test was performed using commercially available gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel. Fuel economy and emissions data were recorded over the specified test cycle and calculated based on the fuel properties and the high-voltage battery energy usage.
Technical Paper

A Computer Program for Calculating Properties of Equilibrium Combustion Products with Some Applications to I.C. Engines

A computer program which rapidly calculates the equilibrium mole fractions and the partial derivatives of the mole fractions with respect to temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio for the products of combustion of any hydrocarbon fuel and air is described. A subroutine is also given which calculates the gas constant, enthalpy, internal energy and the partial derivatives of these with respect to temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. Some examples of the uses of the programs are also given.
Technical Paper

Droplet Vaporization Under Pressure on a Hot Surface

Life histories of droplets evaporating on a hot plate under pressure were obtained. The curves are similar to those obtained by one investigator at atmospheric pressure but are displaced to higher temperatures at higher pressures. Similarities between boiling heat transfer and the life history curves are pointed out. Also, that the liquid will most probably reach critical pressure and temperature at temperatures existing inside an engine. The effects of reaching the critical temperature on heat transfer and on vaporization and diffusion are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Self Ignition of Fuel Drops in Heated Air Streams

The results of both theoretical and experimental studies on the self-ignition of single pure hydrocarbon drops are described. In this work single drops were subjected to air streams heated to such degrees that self-ignition of the drops would occur. Experimental heat and mass transfer parameters, as well as ignition delay data for different fuels and at different operating conditions were obtained. The experimental data were then used in conjunction with boundary layer correlations to evaluate the extent of the ignition delay that is physical (vaporization) and chemical (molecular interaction).
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions Mapping of RCCI in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Varying the premixed gasoline fraction changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This added control over the combustion process has been shown to allow rapid engine operating point exploration without direct modeling guidance.
Technical Paper

Surrogate Diesel Fuel Models for Low Temperature Combustion

Diesel fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbons. Since modeling their combustion characteristics with the inclusion of all hydrocarbon species is not feasible, a hybrid surrogate model approach is used in the present work to represent the physical and chemical properties of three different diesel fuels by using up to 13 and 4 separate hydrocarbon species, respectively. The surrogates are arrived at by matching their distillation profiles and important properties with the real fuel, while the chemistry surrogates are arrived at by using a Group Chemistry Representation (GCR) method wherein the hydrocarbon species in the physical property surrogates are grouped based on their chemical classes, and the chemistry of each class is represented by using up to two hydrocarbon species.
Technical Paper

Improving Upon Best Available Technology: A Clean Flex Fuel Snowmobile

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Snowmobile Team has designed and constructed a clean, quiet, high performance snowmobile for entry in the 2008 Society of Automotive Engineers' Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Built on a 2003 cross-country touring chassis, this machine features a 750 cc fuel-injected four-stroke engine equipped with a fuel sensor which allows operation ranging from regular gasoline to an 85% blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). The engine has been customized with a Mototron control system which allows for full engine optimization using a range of fuels from E00 to E85. Utilizing a heated oxygen sensor and a 3-way catalyst customized for this engine by W.C. Heraeus-GmbH, this sled reduces NOx, HC and CO emissions by up to 89% to an average specific mass of 0.484, 0.154, 4.94 g/kW-hr respectively. Finally, the Mototron system also allowed Wisconsin to extract another 4 kW from the Weber 750cc engine; producing 45 kW and 65 Nm of torque.
Technical Paper

Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI).
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Pressure EGR on Transient Air System Performance and Emissions for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

Low pressure EGR offers greater effectiveness and flexibility for turbocharging and improved heat transfer compared to high pressure EGR systems. These characteristics have been shown to provide potential for further NOx, soot, and fuel consumption reductions in modern diesel engines. One of the drawbacks is reduced transient response capability due to the long EGR path. This can be largely mitigated by combining low pressure and high pressure loops in a hybrid EGR system, but the changes in transient response must be considered in the design of an effective control strategy. The effect of low pressure EGR on transient emissions was evaluated using two different combustion strategies over a variety of transient events. Low pressure EGR was found to significantly lengthen the response time of intake oxygen concentration following a transient event, which can have a substantial effect on emissions formation.
Technical Paper

High Speed Dual-Fuel RCCI Combustion for High Power Output

In recent years society's demand and interest in clean and efficient internal combustion engines has grown significantly. Several ideas have been proposed and tested to meet this demand. In particular, dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated high thermal efficiency, and low engine-out NOx, and soot emissions. Unlike homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which solely relies on the chemical kinetics of the fuel for ignition control, RCCI combustion has proven to provide superior combustion controllability while retaining the known benefits of low emissions and high thermal efficiency of HCCI combustion. However, in order for RCCI combustion to be adopted as a high efficiency and low engine-out emission solution, it is important to achieve high-power operation that is comparable to conventional diesel combustion (CDC).
Technical Paper

Modeling of Equivalence Ratio Effects on Particulate Formation in a Spark-Ignition Engine under Premixed Conditions

3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed to study particulate formation in a Spark-Ignition (SI) engine under premixed conditions. A semi-detailed soot model and a chemical kinetic model, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, were coupled with a spark ignition model and the G equation flame propagation model for SI engine simulations and for predictions of soot mass and particulate number density. The simulation results for in-cylinder pressure and particle size distribution (PSDs) are compared to available experimental studies of equivalence ratio effects during premixed operation. Good predictions are observed with regard to cylinder pressure, combustion phasing and engine load. Qualitative agreements of in-cylinder particle distributions were also obtained and the results are helpful to understand particulate formation processes.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a TiO2 Coating with the Addition of H2 Gas on Emissions of a Small Spark-Ignition Engine

This study looks at the application of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalytic nanoparticle suspension to the surface of the combustion chamber as a coating, as well as the addition of hydrogen gas to a four-stroke spark-ignited carbureted engine as a possible technique for lowering engine-out emissions. The experiments were conducted on two identical Generac gasoline powered generators using two, four and six halogen work lamps to load the engine. One generator was used as a control and the second had key components of the combustion chamber coated with the catalytic suspension. In addition to the coating, both engines were fed a hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture and tested at low, medium and high loads. Using an unmodified engine as a control set, the following three conditions were tested and compared: addition of hydrogen only, addition of coating only, and addition of hydrogen to the coated engine.