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Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake Air Temperature, Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature on the Start of Heat Release in an HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) Engine

In this paper, effect of intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and compression ratio on start of heat release (SOHR) in HCCI engines is investigated. The operational range with HCCI operation was determined experimentally using a CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine with n-butane as the fuel. In-cylinder pressure was processed to evaluate SOHR. The effect of intake air and coolant temperature on SOHR increases as engine speed increases. In order to gain more insight into the combustion phenomena, SOHR was calculated using the theory of Livengood-Wu and compared with the experimental data. Dependence of SOHR on the equivalence ratio shows good correspondence between experiment and calculation. On the contrary, dependence on the intake air temperature and compression ratio shows poorer correspondence with predictions, especially under low engine speed. We interpret this as an indication of the importance of the active intermediate species that remain in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Mixing and Combustion of a Two-Stroke Direct-Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Multi-Dimensional modeling was carried out for a Mercury Marine two-stroke DISI engine. Recently developed spray, ignition, and combustion models were applied to medium load cases with an air-fuel ratio of 30:1. Three injection timings, 271, 291 and 306 ATDC were selected to investigate the effects of the injection timing on mixture formation, ignition and combustion. The results indicate that at this particular load condition, earlier injection timing allows more fuel to evaporate. However, because the fuel penetrates further toward the piston, a leaner mixture is created near the spark plug; thus, a slower ignition process with a weaker ignition kernel was found for the SOI 271 ATDC case. The measured and computed combustion results such as average in-cylinder pressure and NOx are in good agreements. The later injection case produces lower NOx emission and higher CO emission; this is due to poor mixing and is in agreement with experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical Results and Experimental Data on Emission Production Processes in a Diesel Engine

Simulations of DI Diesel engine combustion have been performed using a modified KIVA-II package with a recently developed phenomenological soot model. The phenomenological soot model includes generic description of fuel pyrolysis, soot particle inception, coagulation, and surface growth and oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a Cummins N14 single cylinder test engine. Results of the simulations show acceptable agreement with experimental data in terms of cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and engine-out NOx and soot emissions for a range of fuel injection timings considered. The numerical results are also post-processed to obtain time-resolved soot radiation intensity and compared with the experimental data analyzed using two-color optical pyrometry. The temperature magnitude and KL trends show favorable agreement.
Technical Paper

On Non-Equilibrium Turbulence Corrections in Multidimensional HSDI Diesel Engine Computations

The introduction of high-pressure injection systems in D.I. diesel engines has highlighted already known drawbacks of in-cylinder turbulence modeling. In particular, the well known equilibrium hypothesis is far from being valid even during the compression stroke and moreover during the spray injection and combustion processes when turbulence energy transfer between scales occurs under non-equilibrium conditions. The present paper focuses on modeling in-cylinder engine turbulent flows. Turbulence is accounted for by using the RNG k-ε model which is based on equilibrium turbulence assumptions. By using a modified version of the Kiva-3 code, different mathematically based corrections to the computed macro length scale are proposed in order to account for non-equilibrium effects. These new approaches are applied to a simulation of a recent generation HSDI Diesel engine at both full load and partial load conditions representative of the emission EUDC cycle.
Technical Paper

Positive Displacement Calibration for Laboratory Flowmeters

Positive displacement flowmeters can be used to simply and accurately calibrate common flow transducers such as axial turbine and target flowmeters. Two means of utilizing positive displacement devices were studied for use as a laboratory flowmeter calibration. The first method employed a fixed displacement axial piston motor. This proved unsatisfactory due to the difficulty in quantifying flow losses. The second method used a large hydraulic cylinder. An optical encoder measured the position of the cylinder rod, permitting a direct calculation of the flow through the in-line flowmeter being calibrated. Because cylinder leakage is virtually zero at low pressure, flow can be readily calculated knowing the effective cylinder diameter and piston velocity. The method described in this paper permits flow rates to be measured with an accuracy of ±0.1% of the volumetric flow rate. This paper discusses details of the design of the flowmeter and calibration method.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Modeling of Pilot Injection and Combustion in Diesel Engines

An endoscope-based image acquisition-and-processing camera system was used for diagnostics of pilot injection combustion in a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. A study of the pilot injection or light load is of interest because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in full injection cases. This allows the spray process to be decoupled from the combustion process. The experimental cases were modeled using a version of the KIVA-II code that includes improvements in the turbulence, wall heat transfer, spray, ignition and combustion models. Pilot injections of three different amounts (10, 15 and 20% of the fuel injected at 75% load and 1600 RPM) at different start-of-injection timings were studied. The imaging system included an endoscope, an intensified CID camera, a frame grabber and the control circuitry.
Technical Paper

Six-Mode Cycle Evaluation of the Effect of EGR and Multiple Injections on Particulate and NOx Emissions from a D.I. Diesel Engine

An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and multiple injections on the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate emissions, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over a wide range of engine operating conditions. The tests were conducted on an instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty Diesel engine. Data was taken at 1600 rev/min, and 75% load, and also at operating conditions taken from a 6-mode simulation of the federal transient test procedure (FTP). The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of as many as four independent injections per combustion event at pressures from 20 to 120MPa.
Technical Paper

Carburetor Exit Flow Characteristics

Three different carburetor types have been tested to observe differences in the characteristics of the fuel/air mixtures produced. To characterize the fuel/air mixtures, two diagnostics have been applied: 1) High speed movies and subsequent analysis of the exit flow, and 2) measurement of the A/F ratio found in different positions within the intake manifold. The three different carburetor types that have been studied include a fixed-venturi, fixed-jet butterfly carburetor, a slide-valve carburetor, and a constant-velocity carburetor. Each carburetor type produced a unique set of exit flow characteristics, with differences in the optical density of fuel exiting the carburetor, and differences in the apparent amount of fuel on the intake manifold wall, entrained in the air flow, and in vapor phase.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in the Piston Bowl of a DI Diesel Engine

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to make gas velocity and turbulence measurements in a motored diesel engine. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 production engine. One of the exhaust valves and the fuel injector port were used to provide optical access to the combustion chamber so that modifications to the engine geometry were minimal, and the results are representative of the actual engine. Measurements of gas velocity were made in a plane in the piston bowl using TiO2 seed particles. The light sheet necessary for PIV was formed by passing the beam from a Nd:YAG laser through the injector port and reflecting the beam off a conical mirror at the center of the piston. PIV data was difficult to obtain due to significant out-of-plane velocities. However, data was acquired at 25° and 15° before top dead center of compression at 750 rev/min.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer of Fuel Films Resulting from Impinging Sprays

To help account for fuel distribution during combustion in diesel engines, a fuel film model has been developed and implemented into the KIVA-II code [1]. Spray-wall interaction and spray-film interaction are also incorporated into the model. Modified wall functions for evaporating, wavy films are developed and tested. The model simulates thin fuel film flow on solid surfaces of arbitrary configuration. This is achieved by solving the continuity, momentum and energy equations for the two dimensional film that flows over a three dimensional surface. The major physical effects considered in the model include mass and momentum contributions to the film due to spray drop impingement, splashing effects, various shear forces, piston acceleration, dynamic pressure effects, and convective heat and mass transfer.
Technical Paper

Non-Intrusive Low Cost Cylinder Pressure Transducer for Internal Combustion Engine Monitoring and Control

The objective of this research is to develop a concept for a low cost, non-intrusive sensor to enable the monitoring of in-cylinder pressure on internal combustion engines. This research should enable the use of cylinder pressure information to be extended into smaller in-service internal combustion engines particularly when “closed loop” control is required to control combustion. This paper details the development results of a new concept for a low cost non-intrusive cylinder pressure sensor utilizing the movement of an engine valve when subjected to cylinder pressure. The conclusions drawn in this paper are that a system for measuring in-cylinder pressure using a valve movement sensor is possible at the required accuracy and could be lower cost than the current best technology.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flowfield Non-Uniformities on Emissions Predictions in HSDI Engines

The role of the fluid motion in a diesel engine on mixing and combustion was investigated using the CFD code Kiva-3v. The study considered pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion that is a hybrid combustion system characterized by early injection timings and high amounts of EGR dilution to delay the start and lower the temperature of combustion. The fuel oxidizer mixture is not homogeneous at the start of combustion and therefore requires further mixing for complete combustion. PCCI combustion systems are characterized by relatively high CO and UHC emissions. This work investigates attenuating CO emissions by enhancing mixing processes through non-uniform flowfield motions. The fluid motion was characterized by the amount of average angular rotation about the cylindrical axis (swirl ratio) and the amount of non-uniform motion imparted by the relative amounts of mass inducted through tangential and helical intake ports in a 0.5L HSDI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling Early Injection Processes in HSDI Diesel Engines

Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion process in the Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) regime in a light-duty diesel engine. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into an updated KIVA-3V release 2 code to simulate combustion and emission characteristics using reduced chemistry. The test engine used for validation data was a single cylinder version of a production 1.9L four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was 2,000 rev/min and 5 bar BMEP load. Because high EGR levels are required for combustion retardation to make PCI combustion possible, the EGR rate was set at a relatively high level (40%) and injection timing sweeps were considered. Since injection timings were very advanced, impingement of the fuel spray on the piston bowl wall was unavoidable. To model the effects of fuel films on exhaust emissions, a drop and wall interaction model was implemented in the present code.
Technical Paper

Flamelet Modeling with LES for Diesel Engine Simulations

Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a flamelet time scale combustion model is used to simulate diesel combustion. The flamelet time scale model uses a steady-state flamelet library for n-heptane indexed by mean mixture fraction, mixture fraction variance, and mean scalar dissipation rate. In the combustion model, reactions proceed towards the flamelet library solution at a time scale associated with the slowest reaction. This combination of a flamelet solution and a chemical time scale helps to account for unsteady mixing effects. The turbulent sub-grid stresses are simulated using a one-equation, non-viscosity LES model called the dynamic structure model. The model uses a tensor coefficient determined by the dynamic procedure and the subgrid kinetic energy. The model has been expanded to include scalar mixing and scalar dissipation. A new model for the conditional scalar dissipation has been developed to better predict local extinction.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Theoretical Fuel Flow Analysis of Small Engine Carburetor Idle Circuits

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the fuel and air flows within the idle circuit found in simple carburetors. The idle circuit is modeled numerically using a dynamic model that considers the resistances of the flow paths as well as the inertia of the fuel. The modeling methodology is flexible, in that the organization and techniques can be applied to any configuration and geometry. The numerical model calculates the fuel flow response of carburetor idle/transition circuits to pressure variations associated with air flow through the venturi and around the throttle plate. The model is implemented for a typical small engine carburetor and the nominal results are presented for this specific design.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Flow Field and Pressure Losses in Carburetor Venturi

A commercial CFD package was used to develop a three-dimensional, fully turbulent model of the compressible flow across a complex-geometry venturi, such as those typically found in small engine carburetors. The results of the CFD simulations were used to understand the effect of the different obstacles in the flow on the overall discharge coefficient and the static pressure at the tip of the fuel tube. It was found that the obstacles located at the converging nozzle of the venturi do not cause significant pressure losses, while those obstacles that create wakes in the flow, such as the fuel tube and throttle plate, are responsible for most of the pressure losses. This result indicated that an overall discharge coefficient can be used to correct the mass flow rate, while a localized correction factor can be determined from three-dimensional CFD simulations in order to calculate the static pressure at locations of interest within the venturi.
Technical Paper

Modeling Fuel Preparation and Stratified Combustion in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Fuel preparation and stratified combustion were studied for a conceptual gasoline Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (GDI or DISI) engine by computer simulations. The primary interest was on the effects of different injector orientations and the effects of tumble ratio for late injection cases at a partial load operating condition. A modified KIVA-3V code that includes improved spray breakup and wall impingement and combustion models was used. A new ignition kernel model, called DPIK, was developed to describe the early flame growth process. The model uses Lagrangian marker particles to describe the flame positions. The computational results reveal that spray wall impingement is important and the fuel distribution is controlled by the spray momentum and the combustion chamber shape. The injector orientation significantly influences the fuel stratification pattern, which results in different combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of an Ignition and Combustion Model for Spark-Ignition Engines

A new ignition and combustion model has been developed and tested for use in premixed spark-ignition engines. The ignition model is referred to as the Discrete Particle Ignition Kernel (DPIK) model, and it uses Lagrangian markers to track the flame-front growth. The model includes the effects of electrode heat transfer on the early flame kernel growth process, and it is used in conjunction with a characteristic-time-scale combustion model once the ignition kernel has grown to a size where the effects of turbulence on the flame must be considered. A new term which accounts for the effect of air-fuel ratio, was added to the combustion model for modeling combustion in very lean and very rich mixtures. The flame kernel size predicted by the DPIK model was compared with measurements of Maly and Vogel. Furthermore, predictions of the electrode heat transfer were compared with data of Kravchik and Heywood. In both comparisons the model predictions were in good agreement with the experiments.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of a Non-Gradient Step-Controlled Search Algorithm for Engine Combustion Optimization

A new search technique, called Non-Gradient Step-Controlled algorithm (NGSC), is presented. The NGSC was applied independently from pre-selected starting points and as a supplement to a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimize a HSDI diesel engine using split injection strategies. It is shown that the NGSC handles well the challenges of a complex response surface and factor high-dimensionality, which demonstrates its capability as an efficient and accurate tool to seek “local” convergence on complex surfaces. By directly tracking the change of a merit function, the NGSC places no requirement on response surface continuity / differentiability, and hence is more robust than gradient-dependent search techniques. The directional search mechanism takes factor interactions into consideration, and search step size control is adopted to facilitate search efficiency.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Modeling Using a Level Set Method with Detailed Chemistry

A level set method (G-equation)-based combustion model incorporating detailed chemical kinetics has been developed and implemented in KIVA-3V for Spark-Ignition (SI) engine simulations for better predictions of fuel oxidation and pollutant formation. Detailed fuel oxidation mechanisms coupled with a reduced NOX mechanism are used to describe the chemical processes. The flame front in the spark kernel stage is tracked using the Discrete Particle Ignition Kernel (DPIK) model. In the G-equation model, it is assumed that after the flame front has passed, the mixture within the mean flame brush tends to local equilibrium. The subgrid-scale burnt/unburnt volumes of the flame containing cells are tracked for the primary heat release calculation. A progress variable concept is introduced into the turbulent flame speed correlation to account for the laminar to turbulent evolution of the spark kernel flame.