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Technical Paper

Development of Novel Direct-injection Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Designs Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

1997-05-01
971594
A, three-dimensional CFD code, based on the KIVA code, is used to explore alternatives to conventional DI diesel engine designs for reducing NOx and soot emissions without sacrificing engine performance. The effects of combustion chamber design and fuel spray orientation are investigated using a new proposed GAMMA engine concept, and two new multiple injector combustion system (MICS) designs which utilize multiple injectors to increase gas motion and enhance fuel/air mixing in the combustion chamber. From these computational studies, it is found that both soot and nitrous oxide emissions can be significantly reduced without the need for more conventional emission control strategies such as EGR or ultra high injection pressure. The results suggest that CFD models can be a useful tool not only for understanding combustion and emissions production, but also for investigating new design concepts.
Technical Paper

A New High Pressure Droplet Vaporization Model for Diesel Engine Modeling

1995-10-01
952431
A droplet vaporization model has been developed for use in high pressure spray modeling. The model is a modification of the common Spalding vaporization model that accounts for the effects of high pressure on phase equilibrium, transport properties, and surface tension. The new model allows for a nonuniform temperature within the liquid by using a simple 2-zone model for the droplet. The effects of the different modifications are tested both for the case of a single vaporizing droplet in a quiescent environment as well as for a high pressure spray using the KIVA II code. Comparisons with vaporizing spray experiments show somewhat improved spray penetration predictions. Also, the effect of the vaporization model on diesel combustion predictions was studied by applying the models to simulate the combustion process in a heavy duty diesel engine. In this case the standard and High Pressure vaporization models were found to give similar heat release and emissions results.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Engine Speed on the Combustion Process and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
962056
Previous studies have shown that air motion affects the combustion process and therefore also the emissions in a DI diesel engine. Experimental studies indicate that higher engine speeds enhance the turbulence and this improves air and fuel mixing. However, there are few studies that address fundamental combustion related factors and possible limitations associated with very high speed engine operation. In this study, operation over a large range of engine speeds was simulated by using a multi-dimensional computer code to study the effect of speed on emissions, engine power, engine and exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that at higher engine speeds fuel is consumed in a much shorter time period by the enhanced air and fuel mixing. The shorter combustion duration provides much less available time for soot and NOx formations. In addition, the enhanced air/fuel mixing decreases soot and NOx by reducing the extent of the fuel rich regions.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Use of Multiple Injectors and Split Injection to Reduce DI Diesel Engine Emissions

1996-10-01
962058
This research uses computational modeling to explore methods to increase diesel engine power density while maintaining low pollutant emission levels. Previous experimental studies have shown that injection-rate profiles and injector configurations play important roles on the performance and emissions of particulate and NOx in DI diesel engines. However, there is a lack of systematic studies and fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of spray atomization, mixture formation and distribution, and subsequently, the combustion processes in spray/spray and spray/swirl interaction and flow configurations. In this study, the effects of split injections and multiple injector configurations on diesel engine emissions are investigated numerically using a multidimensional computer code. In order to be able to explore the effects of enhanced fuel-air mixing, the use of multiple injectors with different injector locations, spray orientations and impingement angles was studied.
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