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Technical Paper

On the Calibration of Single-Shot Planar Laser Imaging Techniques in Engines

The noise characteristics of four camera systems representative of those typically used for laser-imaging experiments (a back-illuminated slow-scan camera, a frame-straddling slow-scan camera, an intensified slow-scan camera and an intensified video-rate camera) were investigated, and the results are presented as a function of the signal level and illumination level. These results provide the maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio for laser-imaging experiments, and represent the limit of quantitative signal interpretation. A calibration strategy for engine data that limits the uncertainties associated with thermodynamic and optical correction was presented and applied to engine data acquired with two of the camera systems. When a rigorous analysis of the signal is performed it is seen that shot noise limits the quantitative interpretation of the data for most typical laser-imaging experiments, and obviates the use of single-pixel data.
Technical Paper

Determination of Flame-Front Equivalence Ratio During Stratified Combustion

Combustion under stratified operating conditions in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was investigated using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the fuel distribution (via 3-pentanone doped into the fuel) and the combustion products (via OH, which occurs naturally). The simultaneous images allow direct determination of the flame front location under highly stratified conditions where the flame, or product, location is not uniquely identified by the absence of fuel. The 3-pentanone images were quantified, and an edge detection algorithm was developed and applied to the OH data to identify the flame front position. The result was the compilation of local flame-front equivalence ratio probability density functions (PDFs) for engine operating conditions at 600 and 1200 rpm and engine loads varying from equivalence ratios of 0.89 to 0.32 with an unthrottled intake. Homogeneous conditions were used to verify the integrity of the method.