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Technical Paper

Advances in Accumulator Car Design

The use of a hydraulic drive system with accumulator energy storage has the potential of providing large gains in fuel economy of internal combustion engine passenger automobiles. The improvement occurs because of efficient regenerative braking and the practicality of decoupling the engine operation from the driving cycle demands. The concept under study uses an engine-driven pump supplying hydraulic power to individual wheel pump/motors (P/M's) and/or an accumulator. Available P/M's have high efficiencies (e.g., 95%) at the ideal point of operation, but the efficiency falls off considerably at combinations of pressure, speed, and displacement that are significantly away from ideal. In order to maximize the fuel economy of the automobile, it is necessary to provide the proper combination of components, system design, and control policies that operate the wheel P/M's as close as possible to their maximum efficiency under all types of driving and braking conditions.
Technical Paper

Design and Construction of a High-Bandwidth Hydrostatic Dynamometer

A hydrostatic dynamometer capable of accurately controlling the speed and torque of an engine has been designed and constructed. The thrust of this work is not only to build a better dynamometer, it is the first step in creating a system for laboratory simulation of the actual load environment of engines and powertrains. This paper presents the design, construction, and evaluation of a hydrostatic dynamometer. The evaluation includes speed and torque limits, and bandwidth of the dynamometer. Also, the dynamometer is compared with those in common use, and the feasibility of accurately reproducing the engine or powertrain load environments are assessed. This is the first phase of a development program; future research is discussed.
Technical Paper

Design of a Free-Piston Engine-Pump

Off-highway mining and construction equipment typically converts all the power output of the engine to hydraulic power, with this power then used to perform the earth-moving operations, and also to propel the vehicle. This equipment presents significant opportunities for a new type of powerplant designed to deliver hydraulic power directly. An alternative to the conventional engine driven pump is a free-piston engine-pump (FPEP). The FPEP incorporates the functions of both an internal combustion engine and a hydraulic pump into a single, less-complex unit. The design presented in this paper utilizes two double-ended, reciprocating, opposed pistons, with combustion at one end of each piston and pumping at the opposite end. The opposed piston layout provides balance and also facilitates uniflow scavenging through intake and exhaust ports in the combustion section of the engine. An important feature of this FPEP design is the rebound accumulator circuit.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Aspects of a Modified Hypocycloid Engine

The modified hypocycloid (MH) mechanism, which uses gears to produce straight line motion, has been proposed as an alternative to the slider-crank mechanism for internal combustion (IC) engines. Advantages of the MH mechanism over the slider-crank for an IC engine include the capability of perfect balancing with any number of cylinders and the absence of piston side loads. The elimination of piston side load has the potential for lower piston friction, reduced piston slap, and less susceptibility to cylinder liner cavitation. To evaluate the concept, an experimental single cylinder four-stroke engine which utilizes the MH mechanism is currently being built at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The MH engine has an increased number of friction interfaces compared to a conventional slider-crank engine due to additional bearings and the gear meshes. Thus, the lubrication of these components is an important issue in total MH engine friction.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hydraulic Wheel Pump/Motor for a Hydrostatic Automobile

Using a low-speed high-torque (LSHT) pump/motor to provide the speed range and torque for a hydrostatic automobile offers a number of advantages over using a high-speed low-torque pump/motor, combined with a gear reducer. However, there appear to be no LSHT units commercially available that have true variable displacement capability. Because of this void, a variable displacement pump/motor has been designed and built that could provide a direct drive for each wheel of a hydrostatic automobile. The unit uses some components such as the cylinder block, piston and modified rotating case from a commercially available radial piston pump/motor. Initial preliminary testing of the pump/motor indicates that it has good efficiency and performance characteristics, and, with further development should be very attractive for automotive use. This paper focuses on the design and kinematics of the device.