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Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement and Modeling of Liquid Fuel Spray Penetration in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Liquid fuel penetration was measured using an endoscopebased imaging system in an operating single-cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with simulated turbocharging. Sprays were imaged via the elastic backscatter technique without significantly altering the engine geometry. Light loads (or pilot injections) were also studied because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes can be isolated since they are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in a full injection case. The pilot injections included cases with three different fuel amounts (10%, 15% and 20% of the fuel injected in the baseline case, i.e., 75% load and 1600 rev/min) with different start-of-injection timings. Maximum liquid penetration lengths beyond which the fuel is completely vaporized were observed for all the cases studied. The maximum lengths varied from 23 mm to 28 mm for the different start-of-injection timings.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Use of Multiple Injectors and Split Injection to Reduce DI Diesel Engine Emissions

This research uses computational modeling to explore methods to increase diesel engine power density while maintaining low pollutant emission levels. Previous experimental studies have shown that injection-rate profiles and injector configurations play important roles on the performance and emissions of particulate and NOx in DI diesel engines. However, there is a lack of systematic studies and fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of spray atomization, mixture formation and distribution, and subsequently, the combustion processes in spray/spray and spray/swirl interaction and flow configurations. In this study, the effects of split injections and multiple injector configurations on diesel engine emissions are investigated numerically using a multidimensional computer code. In order to be able to explore the effects of enhanced fuel-air mixing, the use of multiple injectors with different injector locations, spray orientations and impingement angles was studied.
Technical Paper

Predictions of Residual Gas Fraction in IC Engines

It is well known that the accuracy of simulations of combustion processes in diesel and spark ignited (SI) engines depends on the initial conditions within the cylinder at intake valve closure (IVC). Residual gas affects the engine combustion processes through its influence on charge mass, temperature and dilution. In SI engines, there is little oxygen in the residual gas, and thus the dilution effect on flame propagation is more significant than in compression ignited (CI) engines. However, in CI engines, the ignition delay depends strongly on the in-cylinder gas temperature, which is proportional to the gas temperature at IVC. Furthermore, ignition delay is significantly affected by how much oxygen is present, which is also partly determined by the residual gas fraction. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to determine residual gas concentrations accurately.