Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 11 of 11
Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and the Number of Injector Holes on the Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2001-03-05
2001-01-0532
The effect of ambient gas density and the number of injector holes on the characteristics of airflow surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The positive normal velocities across the control surface of single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in velocities tangential to the control surface near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas is accelerated by spray wall impingement.
Technical Paper

Near Wall Interaction in Spray Impingement

1996-02-01
960863
The hydrodynamic details of droplet-droplet and droplet-liquid film interactions on solid surfaces are believed to have a significant role in spray impingement phenomena, yet details of this interaction have not been clearly identified. The interaction among the droplets during impact affects their residence time on the surface, spreading, and droplet and liquid film stability. After impact, droplet interactions affect droplet collisions, coalescence and liquid splashing, This interaction affects secondary atomization and the droplet dispersion characteristics of the impingement process. In this study, details of droplet-droplet and droplet-liquid film interactions in solid surface impingement have been visualized using high speed photography. The effects of these interactions on secondary atomization and droplet dispersion have been quantified.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Sprays from a Common Rail Injection System for Use in an HSDI Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980810
An experimental and numerical characterization has been conducted of a high-pressure common rail diesel fuel injection system. The experimental study was performed using a common rail system with the capability of producing multiple injections within a single cycle. The injector used in the experiments had a single guided multi-hole nozzle tip. The diesel sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber with optical access at ambient temperature. The gas density in the chamber was representative of the density in an HSDI diesel engine at the time of injection. Single, pilot, and multiple injection cases were studied at different rail pressures and injection durations. Images of the transient sprays were obtained with a high-speed digital camera. From these images spray tip penetration and cone angles were obtained directly. Also spray droplet sizes were derived from the images using a light extinction method (LEM).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Wall Temperature on Flame Structure During Flame Quenching

1994-03-01
940683
The effect of wall temperature on single surface flame quenching and flame structure of an atmospheric premixed methane-air flame was studied. The luminous region of a laminar flame was located at an angle of 45 degrees to a temperature- controlled surface. C2 laser-induced fluorescence was used as an indicator of flame position while Raman spectroscopy was used to determine gas temperature profiles near the surface. These measurements were conducted for wall positions (vertical distance from the surface) ranging from 50 mm to 1.0 mm and wall temperatures ranging from 150 °C to 600 °C. C2 laser-induced fluorescence measurements indicated flame position is affected by the presence of a surface and the surface temperature. Larger C2 fluorescence intensity values were observed for higher wall temperatures at all distances from the surface.
Technical Paper

Internal Flow in a Scale Model of a Diesel Fuel Injector Nozzle

1992-10-01
922308
An experimental investigation of turbulent flow patterns in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of the injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Two steady flow average Reynolds numbers (10,500 and 13,300), analogous to fuel injection velocities and sac pressures of approximately 320 and 405 m/s and 67 and 107 MPa (10,000 and 16,000 psi), were investigated. The axial progression of mean and root mean square (rms) axial velocities was obtained for both sharp and rounded inlet conditions and varying L/D. The discharge coefficient was also calculated for each geometry.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamics of Droplet Impingement on a Heated Surface

1993-03-01
930919
The impingement of liquid fuels on surfaces in IC engines affects performance and emissions. To better understand liquid/solid interactions, the impact of single droplets on a healed surface was experimentally examined. The droplet impingement was photographed with a high speed cine camera to obtain a history of the hydrodynamics of the impingement process. Images obtained from the cine photography were inspected to determine hydrodynamic regimes: wetting, transition, and non-wetting, associated with the specific impingement conditions (droplet size, velocity, surface temperature, and ambient pressure). Images from selected impingement conditions were further analyzed to quantify the atomization resulting from the impingement.
Technical Paper

Spectral Characteristics of Turbulent Flow in a Scale Model of a Diesel Fuel Injector Nozzle

1993-03-01
930924
An experimental investigation of the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle hole has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of an injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Turbulence spectra were calculated from the velocity data using the Lomb-Scargle method. Injector hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Results were obtained for a steady flow average Reynolds number of 10,500, which is analogous to a fuel injection velocity of 320 m/s and a sac pressure of approximately 67 MPa (10,000 psi). Turbulence time frequency spectra were obtained for significant locations in each geometry, in order to determine how geometry affects the development of the turbulent spectra.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2000-10-16
2000-01-2789
Airflow characteristics surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A hydraulically actuated, electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI) system was used to supply the fuel into a pressurized constant volume chamber at room temperature. The chamber gas densities in this study were 10 kg/m3, 20 kg/m3 and 30 kg/m3. The injection pressure was 96.5 MPa. Two frequency doubled (532 nm) Nd:YAG lasers were used to create coincident laser sheets to illuminate the test section at two instances after start of injection (ASI). The double exposed images of sprays and Al2O3 seed particles were developed and velocity vectors of the gas surrounding the transient diesel sprays were obtained using a numerical autocorrelation PIV method.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Surrounding Burning Transient Diesel Sprays

2002-10-21
2002-01-2668
Airflow characteristics surrounding burning transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber under temperatures around 900 K were investigated using a 6-hole injector and a single-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. The results were directly compared with the results from evaporating spray conditions near 900 K and non-evaporating conditions at 293 K. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The normal and tangential velocities of both for evaporating and burning sprays were higher than those of room temperature non-evaporating sprays. The velocities tangential to the control surface, toward the injector tip, for the single-hole injection sprays were lower than those of 6-hole injection sprays.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Spray and Combustion Chamber Wall Impingement in Large Bore Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0496
The Diesel engine is a commercially attractive powerplant, however it is noted to have significant specific output of harmful emissions under some operating conditions. One possible solution for reduction of the harmful emissions from the Diesel engine is greater control over the fuel injection event. To gain further understanding of liquid phase Diesel fuel injection spray characteristics, a 2.44 liter displacement, 4 stroke engine was modified for optical access and fitted with a Caterpillar Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI) system. The data collection system consisted of a high repetition rate diode pumped Nd:YAG laser frequency doubled to 532 nm for visible illumination and a Kodak High Speed Motion Analyzer for recording fuel spray images. The engine was motored under various inlet conditions to create an engine combustion chamber environment typical of those found in commercial engines of similar per cylinder displacement class.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Characteristics Surrounding Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2002-03-04
2002-01-0499
Airflow characteristics surrounding evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber under temperatures around 1100 K were investigated using a 6-hole injector and a single-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The normal velocities crossing the control surface toward the spray plume for single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. The velocities tangential to the control surface toward the injector tip for the single-hole injection sprays were lower than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in tangential velocities near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas was accelerated by the spray wall impingement, both for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays.
X