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Technical Paper

Integration of a Continuous Multi-Component Fuel Evaporation Model with an Improved G-Equation Combustion and Detailed Chemical Kinetics Model with Application to GDI Engines

A continuous multi-component fuel evaporation model has been integrated with an improved G-equation combustion and detailed chemical kinetics model. The integrated code has been successfully used to simulate a gasoline direct injection engine. In the multi-component fuel model, the theory of continuous thermodynamics is used to model the properties and composition of multi-component fuels such as gasoline. In the improved G-equation combustion model a flamelet approach based on the G-equation is used that considers multi-component fuel effects. To precisely calculate the local and instantaneous residual which has a great effect on the laminar flame speed, a “transport equation residual” model is used. A Damkohler number criterion is used to determine the combustion mode in flame containing cells.
Journal Article

Improvements to Combustion Models for Modeling Spark-Ignition Engines Using the G-equation and Detailed Chemical Kinetics

Improvements to combustion models for modeling spark ignition engines using the G-equation flame propagation model and detailed chemical kinetics have been performed. The improvements include revision of a PRF chemistry mechanism, precise calculation of “primary heat release” based on the sub-grid scale unburned/burnt volumes of flame-containing cells, modeling flame front quenching in highly stratified mixtures, introduction of a Damkohler model for assessing the combustion regime of flame-containing cells, and a better method of modeling the effects of the local residual value on the burning velocity. The validation of the revised PRF mechanism shows that the calculated ignition delay matches shock tube data very well. The improvements to the “primary heat release” model based on the cell unburned/burnt volumes more precisely consider the chemical kinetics heat release in unburned regions, and thus are thought to be physically reasonable.
Journal Article

Modeling of Two Charge-air Cooling Turbo-charging Systems for Spark Ignition Engines

Two charge-air cooling turbo-charging systems, named Turbo-Cool and T2C, have been introduced. Turbo-Cool employs an air turbine expander/suction-compressor unit in the intake side and a VGT in the exhaust side, while T2C employs an air turbine expansion in the intake side and an exhaust VGT with a same shaft with the air turbine. A Nissan SR20DET turbocharged gasoline engine with the two charge-air cooling turbo-charging systems have been modeled using GT-SUITE 6.0 engine simulation code. Modeling results show that either Turbo-Cool or T2C must be combined with exhaust VGT. The air turbine in both systems can be either VGT or fixed. Modeling results also show that the power at WOT and rated engine speed of the engine with the proposed charge-air cooling turbo-charging systems can be increased by 20∼30%, the maximum torque at WOT can be increased by 46∼71%, and the BSFC at WOT and rated engine speed can be decreased by 4∼5%.
Journal Article

A Transport Equation Residual Model Incorporating Refined G-Equation and Detailed Chemical Kinetics Combustion Models

A transport equation residual model incorporating refined G-equation and detailed chemical kinetics combustion models has been developed and implemented in the ERC KIVA-3V release2 code for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine simulations for better predictions of flame propagation. In the transport equation residual model a fictitious species concept is introduced to account for the residual gases in the cylinder, which have a great effect on the laminar flame speed. The residual gases include CO2, H2O and N2 remaining from the previous engine cycle or introduced using EGR. This pseudo species is described by a transport equation. The transport equation residual model differentiates between CO2 and H2O from the previous engine cycle or EGR and that which is from the combustion products of the current engine cycle.