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Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of the Commercial Plant Biotechnology Facility

The demand for highly flexible manipulation of plant growth generations, modification of specific plant processes, and genetically engineered crop varieties in a controlled environment has led to the development of a Commercial Plant Biotechnology Facility (CPBF). The CPBF is a quad-middeck locker playload to be mounted in the EXPRESS Rack that will be installed in the International Space Station (ISS). The CPBF integrates proven ASTROCULTURE” technologies, state-of-the-art control software, and fault tolerance and recovery technologies together to increase overall system efficiency, reliability, robustness, flexibility, and user friendliness. The CPBF provides a large plant growing volume for the support of commercial plant biotechnology studies and/or applications for long time plant research in a reduced gravity environment.
Technical Paper

SMURRF - A Robotic Facility for Space Based Science Operations

Automation of space-based scientific operations minimizes the crew time needs for experiments while increasing the efficiency and quality of science operations. ORBITEC has completed the development of a space qualifiable prototype of a Shared Multi-Use Remote Robotics Facility (SMURRF). SMURRF, sized for a Middeck Locker (MDL) application, provides a simple, flexible, and functional manipulator to assist space operations, in manned or unmanned modes, carried out in lockers or racks onboard the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). It will be primarily operated in an automated mode with additional remote command/control capability from the ground or from space. Ground trials have demonstrated that many operations can be autonomously performed without the presence of a human operator.
Technical Paper

Control and Monitoring of Environmental Parameters in the ASTROCULTURE™ Flight Experiment

The ASTROCULTURE™ (ASC) middeck flight experiment series was developed to test and integrate subsystems required to grow plants in reduced gravity, with the goal of developing a plant growth unit suitable for conducting quality biological research in microgravity. Flights on the Space Shuttle have demonstrated control of water movement through a particulate rooting material, growth chamber temperature and humidity control, LED lighting systems and control, recycling of recovered condensate, ethylene scrubbing, and carbon dioxide control. A complete plant growth unit was tested on STS-63 in February 1995, the first ASC flight in which plant biology experiments were conducted in microgravity. The methods and objectives used for control of environmental conditions in the ASC unit are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Humidity and Temperature Control in the ASTROCULTURE™ Flight Experiment

The ASTROCULTURE™ (ASC) middeck flight experiment series was developed to test subsystems required to grow plants in reduced gravity, with the goal of developing a plant growth unit suitable for conducting quality biological research in microgravity. Previous Space Shuttle flights (STS-50 and STS-57) have successfully demonstrated the ability to control water movement through a particulate rooting matrix in microgravity and the ability of LED lighting systems to provide high levels of irradiance without excessive heat build-up in microgravity. The humidity and temperature control system used in the middeck flight unit is described in this paper. The system controls air flow and provides dehumidification, humidification, and condensate recovery for a plant growth chamber volume of 1450 cm3.
Technical Paper

Engine Control Strategy for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Incorporating Load-Leveling and Computer Controlled Energy Management

This paper identifies important engine, alternator and battery characteristics needed for determining an appropriate engine control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle Examination of these characteristics indicates that a load-leveling strategy applied to the small engine will provide better fuel economy than a power-tracking scheme An automatic energy management strategy is devised whereby a computer controller determines the engine-alternator turn-on and turn-off conditions and controls the engine-alternator autonomously Battery state of charge is determined from battery voltage and current measurements Experimental results of the system's performance in a test vehicle during city driving are presented
Technical Paper

Powertrain Simulation of the M1A1 Abrams Using Modular Model Components

Powertrain simulation is becoming an increasingly valuable tool to evaluate new technologies proposed for future military vehicles. The powertrain of the M1A1 Abrams tank is currently being modeled in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This powertrain model is to be integrated with other component models in an effort to produce a high fidelity simulation of the entire vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion in a Constant-Volume Combustion Vessel

The role of mixture stratification on combustion rate has been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel in which mixtures of different equivalence ratios can be added in a spatially and temporally controlled fashion. The experiments were performed in a regime of low fluid motion to avoid the complicating effects of turbulence generated by the injection of different masses of fluid. Different mixture combinations were investigated while maintaining a constant overall equivalence ratio and initial pressure. The results indicate that the highest combustion rate for an overall lean mixture is obtained when all of the fuel is contained in a stoichiometric mixture in the vicinity of the ignition source. This is the result of the high burning velocity of these mixtures, and the complete oxidation which releases the full chemical energy.
Technical Paper

A Matrix-Based Porous Tube Water and Nutrient Delivery System

A system was developed which provides nutrients and water to plants while maintaining good aeration at the roots and preventing water from escaping in reduced gravity. The nutrient solution is circulated through porous tubes under negative pressure and moves through the tube wall via capillary forces into the rooting matrix, establishing a non-saturated condition in the root zone. Tests using prototypes of the porous tube water and nutrient delivery system indicate that plant productivity in this system is equivalent to standard soil and solution culture growing procedures. The system has functioned successfully in short-term microgravity during parabolic flight tests and will be flown on the space shuttle. Plants are one of the components of a bioregenerative life support system required for long duration space missions.
Technical Paper

Initial Design and Refinement of a High-Efficiency Electric Drivetrain for a Zero-Emissions Snowmobile

The University of Wisconsin - Madison Clean Snowmobile team has designed, constructed and now refined an electric snowmobile with 40 km (24 mi) range and acceleration comparable to a 75 kW (100 hp) internal-combustion-powered snowmobile. Starting with a Polaris IQ Fusion chassis, a direct-drive chain-case was engineered to couple a General Motors EV1 copper-bar rotor AC induction electric motor to the track drive shaft. The battery pack uses 104 28 V, 2.8 A-hr Lithium-Ion battery modules supplied by Milwaukee Tool to store 8.2 kW-hr of energy at a nominal voltage of 364 V. Power is transmitted to the electric motor via an Azure Dynamics DMOC445LLC motor controller. All of the components fit within the original sled envelope, leading to a vehicle with conventional appearance and a total mass of 313 kg (690 lb). The vehicle, dubbed the BuckEV, accelerates to 150 m (500 ft) in 6.9 seconds and has a top speed of 122 km/hr (76 mph) with a pass-by sound level of 55 dB.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Testing of a Through the Road Parallel, Hybrid-Electric, Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

The University of Wisconsin Hybrid Vehicle Team has implemented and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2008 ChallengeX competition. This four year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were appropriately weighted to determine powertrain component selections. Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, is a split-parallel hybrid utilizing a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9L CDTi (common rail diesel turbo injection) engine coupled to an F40 6-speed manual transmission. The rear axle is powered by a SiemensVDO induction motor/gearbox power-limited to 65 kW by a 40-module (288 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc, nickel-metal hydride battery pack.
Technical Paper

Integration of Hybrid-Electric Strategy to Enhance Clean Snowmobile Performance

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Snowmobile Team designed and constructed a hybrid-electric snowmobile for the 2005 Society of Automotive Engineers' Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Built on a 2003 cross-country touring chassis, this machine features a 784 cc fuel-injected four-stroke engine in parallel with a 48 V electric golf cart motor. The 12 kg electric motor increases powertrain torque up to 25% during acceleration and recharges the snowmobile's battery pack during steady-state operation. Air pollution from the gasoline engine is reduced to levels far below current best available technology in the snowmobile industry. The four-stroke engine's closed-loop EFI system maintains stoichiometric combustion while dual three-way catalysts reduce NOx, HC and CO emissions by up to 94% from stock. In addition to the use of three way catalysts, the fuel injection strategy has been modified to further reduce engine emissions from the levels measured in the CSC 2004 competition.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Study of a New Diesel Exhaust Particulate Trap System*

Diesel exhaust particulate trap system is one of the most effective means to control diesel particulate emissions from diesel vehicles. In this paper, a recently developed diesel exhaust particulate trap system was described and experimentally studied. This system employed a wall-flow ceramic foam filter, which was made of silicon carbide or chromium oxide. And this system was equipped with a microwave heater for the purpose of filter regeneration. Engine dynamometer testing, vehicle bench testing and on-road evaluation of this system were conducted. The experiments studied on the filtration efficiency of this system, the effectiveness of filter regeneration, the power penalty of the vehicle, the ability of noise suppression of this system, and the durability of this particulate trap system. The experimental results showed that this diesel particulate trap system was effective, reliable, and durable.
Technical Paper

Radio-Frequency (RF) Technology for Filter Microwave Regeneration System*

A new diesel exhaust particulate trap system was developed to control diesel particulate emissions from buses in large cities in China. This system was equipped with a microwave heater for the purpose of filter regeneration. To achieve effective and efficient filter regeneration, a radio-frequency (RF) technology was employed. The RF technology measured the amount of particulate trapped in filter, and it controlled filter regeneration using microwave signal. In this paper, the on-line diesel particulate measurement system was described, and experimental study of this measurement system was reported. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of the RF technology in the application of this diesel particulate trap system.
Technical Paper

Submerged Electrical Discharges for Water Decontamination and Disinfection

A modular and scalable Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor was developed, which uses atmospheric-pressure electrical discharges under water to generate highly reactive species to break down organic contaminants and microorganisms. Key benefits of this novel technology include: (i) extremely high efficiency in both decontamination and disinfection; (ii) operating continuously at ambient temperature and pressure; (iii) reducing demands on the containment vessel; and (iv) requiring no consumables. This plasma based technology was developed to replace the catalytic reactor being used in the planned International Space Station Water Processor Assembly.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Hybrid-Electric Split-Parallel Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

The University of Wisconsin - Madison Hybrid Vehicle Team has designed, fabricated, tested and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2006 Challenge X competition. This multi-year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Trade-offs in fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were weighed to establish Wisconsin's Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, utilizes a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9 L CIDI engine coupled to GM's 6-speed F40 transmission. The rear axle is powered by a 65 kW Ballard induction motor/gearbox powered from a 44-module (317 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc., nickel-metal hydride hybrid battery pack. It includes a newly developed proprietary battery management algorithm which broadcasts the battery's state of charge onto the CAN network.
Technical Paper

The Development of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Aluminum Intensive Vehicle

For competition in the 1998 FutureCar Challenge (FCC98), the University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureCar Team has designed and built a lightweight, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid electric vehicle by modifying a 1994 Mercury Sable Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV), nicknamed the Aluminum Cow. The Wisconsin team is striving for a combined, FTP cycle gasoline-equivalent fuel economy of 21.3 km/L (50 mpg) and Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) federal emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a full-size car. To reach these goals, Wisconsin has concentrated on reducing the overall vehicle weight. In addition to customizing the drivetrain, the team has developed a vehicle control strategy that both aims to achieve these goals and also allows for the completion of a reliable hybrid in a short period of time.
Technical Paper

A Clean, Quiet, Environmentally Friendly Snowmobile

In an attempt to reach a compromise between the views of environmentalists and snowmobile enthusiasts, the University of Wisconsin-Madison Clean Snowmobile Team set out to design a machine that maintains performance while decreasing air and noise pollution. After careful consideration of all possible design avenues, the decision was made to select a four-stroke power plant. In order to optimize the engine's efficiency, an engine control unit was chosen that was both capable and affordable. Engine modifications were made to allow the snowmobile's stock transmission to be used. Alterations were also made to intake, exhaust, and cooling systems to allow the engine to fit comfortably under the snowmobile's stock hood. Modifications were made to the snowmobile's chassis to accommodate the additional mass associated with the four-stroke engine. The final product is a snowmobile that minimizes environmental impact but still has the appearance and performance necessary to satisfy consumers.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Midsize Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility

The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicles in the Cyberspace: Accelerating Testing via Computer Simulation

We present an approach in which an open-source software infrastructure is used for testing the behavior of autonomous vehicles through computer simulation. This software infrastructure is called CAVE, from Connected Autonomous Vehicle Emulator. As a software platform that allows rapid, low-cost and risk-free testing of novel designs, methods and software components, CAVE accelerates and democratizes research and development activities in the field of autonomous navigation.